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OHEC 
375 
.00971 
O59DE\O 
v.5 



Donated to the 
Ontarto Htstortcal Textbook 
Col lection 
by 
Ottawa Teachers t College 
4arch, 1966 



ONTARIO 
TEACHERS' MAqUALS 

GEOGRAPHY 

AUTHORIZED BY THE blINISTER OF EDUCATIOI 

/a01, ,',l S 

ToROTO 
THE RYERSON pIESS 



COPYRIGHT, CAIADA, 1915, BY 
"IHE /XNISTER OP Iï]DUCATION FOR ONTARIC 
Second PrintinE, 1919. 
Tbird Println. 
Fourth PrintJng. 192. 



HISTORICAL 

0;,] 
ÇOLLECTION 

CONTENTS 

PAGP. 
CgUR.E oF STco" .................................. 1 

CHAPTER I 
The Teaching of Geography ........................ 5 
The Point of View ............................. 5 
Home Geography .............................. 6 
Twofold Aspect of Geography .................. 6 
Practical Value of Geography .................. 8 

CH.PTER II 
Principles Involved in Teaching Geography ......... 9 
Home Geograpby First ......................... 9 
A Study of Relations ................. : ........ 10 
Tbe Inductive Metbod ......................... 10 
Correlation witb otber Studies ................. 11 

CHAI'TER III 
Geographic Aids ................................... 12 
Globes, Maps, Black-boards ..................... 12 
Newspapers, Supplementary Reading ........... 15 
Pictures, Stereoscopic Views ................... 17 
School Excursions ............................. 19 
Graphic Illustrations .......................... 20 
Map Modelling, The Sand-table ................. 20 
Other Aids .................................... 

CHAPTER IV. FoP.x I: SE.NIOR GRADE 
Details of the Course .............................. -°3 
Observations of Local Surroundings ............ 23 
Lesson topics suggested .................... 23 
General Notions of Direction ................... 24 
Lesson topics suggested .................... 24 
General Notions of Time ....................... 25 
Lesson topics suggested .................... 25 
Simple Observations o[ the Weather and Seasons, 
etc .......................................... 25 
Lesson topics suggested ................... 26 
Land and Water Forms in the Neighbourhood... _°7 
Lesson topics suggested ................... 29 
Simple Observations of Local Activities relating 
to the home, the farm; other activities ....... 29 
iii 



iv CONTENTS 

CHAPTER V. FORM I: SE.,'IOR GRADE (Continued) PAGE 
Suggestions for Lessons ........................... 30 
Local Surroundings ............................ 30 
Country. town, village; roads; the school; 
house of refuge .......................... 30 
Direction ...................................... 3.2 ° 
Up. down; front, side, back, beside, etc.; 
rlght, left; east, west, north, south; wind- 
ward. leeward ........................... 32 
Time .......................................... 35 
Day, night, etc.; minute, hour .............. 35 
V¢eather ...................................... 37 
Wet, dry, cold. etc.; winds; clouds, fogs; 
rain; thunder and lightning; dew; ice .., 37 
The Sun ...................................... 41 
The Moon ..................................... 42 
The Seasons .................................. 44 
The autumn .............................. 44 
Land and Water Forms ........................ 4 
Hills; a ditch ............................. 45 
Activities of the Home ......................... 47 
Bread, flour, wheat; the farm; the store; the 
cheese factory; the railway .............. 47 

CIIAPTER VI: FORM Il 
Details of the Course .............................. 50 
Recommendatlons to Teachers .................. 50 
Land and Water Forms ........................ 51 
The Weather and the Seasons .................. 51 
Outllne Study of the Earth as a Whole .......... 52 
Local Geography ............................... 52 
|ap Drawing ................................. 52 
Commercial Geography ........................ 53 
Places of Geographical Interest in the Neighbour- 
hood ........................................ 53 
Places of Historical Interest in the Neighbourhood 54 
The People of the Locality and their Nationallties 54 
Child Life in Other Lands ...................... 54 

PTEII VII: Fo:. II (Continued) 
Suggestions for Lessons ........................... 
Motlntains. A River, A River Basln ............. 55 
The Ocean. Shore Forms ....................... 61 
Winds. Rain .................................. 64 
The Seasons .................................. 69 
Weather Records .............................. 71 



CONTENTS v 

CHAPTER VII: FORM II (Continued) PA«E 
Variation in the Length of Day and Night ...... 75 
The Earth as a Globe ............  ............. 77 
The Township ......................... . ....... 79 
Maps ......................................... 80 

CtIAPTEI VIII. FO[ III: JUS'fOR GRADE 
Details of the Course .............................. 82 
Recommendations te Teachers ................. 82 
Supplementary Reading .................... :.. 82 
The Earth as a Whole ......................... 84 
Continents and Oceans ........................ 84 
North America ................................ 85 
Canada as a Whole ........................ 87 
Ontario ............................... 89 

CHAPTER IX. FoRx[ III: Jt.XlOl {RDE (Continued) 
Suggestions for Lessons ........................... 91 
The Earth as a Whole ......................... 91 
Its axis; the poles; the equator; the earth's 
rotation; hot, temperate, and cold regions. 91 
North Amerlca ...................... : ......... 94 
Location .................................. 95 
Size ...................................... 96 
Surface ................................... 98 
The Rocky Mountaln Highland ........ 98 
The Appalachian Highland ............ 99 
The Laurentian Highland .............. 99 
Continental slopes and plains .......... 99 
Drainage .................................. 100 
The Pacific Slope; the Atlantlc Slope; 
the Great Central Plain ............. 100 
The Mackenzie Basln ................. 101 
The Winnipeg Basin .................. 102 
The Mississippl Basln ................. 102 
The St. Lawrence Basin ............... 102 
Hudson Bay Basin .................... 103 
Shore Forms .............................. 103 
Climate ................................... 105 
Natural Resources ........................ 107 
Vegetation, animais, minerals .......... 107 
Distribution of Population ................. 110 
Industries ................................ 111 
Transportation and Commerce ............. 111 



vi CONTENTS 

CI-IAPTER X. FORM III: SE.IOR GRADE PA(;E 
Details of the Course ............................. 112 
Sun, Moon, Stars, etc .......................... 112 
Canada ....................................... 113 
The Provinces of the Dominion .................... 115 
Newfoundland, South America, Asia ............ 115 
The Mother-country in General ................ 115 
Europe. Africa ................................ 117 
The British Empire ........................... 117 
CHAPTER XI. FORXf III: SE-IOR GRADE (Continued) 
Suggestions for Lessons ........................... 118 
The Solar System ............................. 118 
The sun, the planets, the moon. the stars, 
comets, meteors ........................ 118 
]Tova Scotia (Type Lesson) .................... 125 
Location. size ............................. 126 
Physical features, climate .................. 127 
Natural resources ......................... 130 
Industries, transportation, trade and com- 
merce .................................. 130 
People and government .................... 133 
Cities and chief towns ..................... 134 
CHPTER XII.. FOR IV: JU'IOR GRADE 
Details of the Course .............................. 135 
The Earth as a Planet ......................... 135 
Latitude and Longitude ....................... 135 
Continent Structure ........................... 136 
Europe, North America, South America ........ 137 
CIlAPTER XIII. FOR.r IV: JUNIOR (RADE (Continued) 
Suggestions for Lessons ........................... 139 
The Earth as a Planer ......................... 139 
The earth's orbit .......................... 139 
The inclination of the earth's axis .......... 140 
Variation in the length of day and night .... 140 
The cause of the seasons .................. 143 
Latitude and Longitude ....................... 145 
Measurement of circles .................... 145 
How to locate a point ..................... 146 
Latitude and parallels of latitude .......... 147 
Meridians and longitude ................... 148 
Problems in latitude and longitude ........ 150 
Problems in longitude and rime ............ 151 
Standard time ............................ 153 



CONTENTS vil 

CH.tPTER XIII. FORM IV: JUNIOR GRADE (Continued) PAGE 
Continent Structure, etc ........................ 155 
Origin of Continents ...................... 155 
Coast-line of North America ............... 156 
Physical Features of the Continents ........ 156 
General Review ........................... 163 
Influence of Topography upon Civilizatiou ...... 166 
World Barriers ................................ 167 
Mountains, Oceans, Deserts ................ 167 

CH.'TE XIV. Feux[ IV: 
Details of the Course .............................. 170 
Winds ........................................ 170 
Ocean Currents ............................... 170 
Tides ......................................... 171 
Eclipses of the Sun and Moon .................. 171 
Climate ....................................... 171 
Light Zones .................................. 173 
Heat Zones ................................... 174 
North America ............................... 174 
South America ................................ 174 
Europe ....................................... 176 
Asia .......................................... 176 
Africa ........................................ 176 
Australia and New Zealand .................... 178 
Canada ....................................... 
United States ................................. 178 
The British Empire ........................... 179 

CAPTER XV. FORX IV: S.XIOR GRADE (Continued) 
Suggestions for Lessons ........................... 180 
Winds ........................................ 180 
Zones of Sunlight ............................. 184 
Zones of Heat ................................. 186 
The Evolution of the British EmDtre ............. 188 
List of Ref'euce Books ........................... 193 



CORRIGENDA. 
A new Manua] on Geography wi]] be prepared in 
early future. In the meantime, attention is called fo 
some details of the present book. 
The (eography Reader called T]e Siory o[ i]e Earth 
an«! Ils Peoples, is no longer procuraMe; and ail refer- 
e,wcs fo that book shou]d now be eliminated from the e 
page.. The first part of the new Ontario Public Scl, ool 
(;eography now takes the place of the çeography Reader. 
Ail rofere,wes to the Dntario ,çclwol Geo.qraplj should 
now be adju.t,,,! fo s,it the nexv O»tario Public Scltool 
G eogra plt / : 
Page 87--Eight lines from bottom--Read, pages 64-70. 
Page 99--Eight lines from bottom--Read, page 56. 
Page 117--Three lines from bottom--Read, pages 249-252. 
Page 145--Line sevenRead, pages 36-3. 
Page 179--Line fourteen--Read, pages 249-252. 
Page 179--Line sixteen--Read, page 250. 
The references to the old text-book on the following 
pages should now be omitted: 
Pages 92, 98, 99, 100, 101. 106, 108. 109, 110, 128, 147, 149, 
150, 152, 162, 164, 171, 172, 173, 174, 181, 185. 
A few of the Books of Peference, pages 193-195, are 
now out of print. Consult the publi.hers. 



GEOGRAPHY 

PUBLIC AND SEPARATE ,( 'ItOOL 
COURSE OF STUDY 

FORM I, SENIOR GRADE 
(Consult Chapters IV and V.) 
1. Observations of the local surroundings. 
2. General notions of direction and rime. 
3. Simple observations of the wcather and scasons, of the 
son and Illoon. 
4. Observations of the land and water forms in tbe 
neighbourhood. 
5. Simple observations of the activities of tbe home and 
the neighbourhood. 

FORI II 

(Consult Chapters VI and VII.) 
1. Land and water forms continued. P, epresentation of 
tire forms of land and watcr by nmdelling and 
drawing. 
2. Observations of the common phenmena of the 
weather, and the changes and characteristic features 
of eaeh season. 
1 



2 GEOGRAPHY 

3. Outline study, on a globe and on the map of the world, 
of the earth as a whole, its eo,tinents and oeeans, 
and the relative I,ositi«m of each. 
I. Local geograI,hy. 
 3lap drawing. 
6. Loeal marketing, loal industries, raw material, pro- 
ducts, and distribution. 
î. Plaees of zeographical interest in thê neighbourhood. 
,q. l'laees of historical interest in the neiglibourhood. 
9. The people of the lo«-ality and their nationalities. 
1. l'hild lire i other lands. 

FOIt.I III. JUNIO (;12,ADE 

{Consult Chapters VIII and IX.) 

1. The earth as a whole: its form, rotation, axis, poles. 
cquator; its hot, temperate, and cold regions. 
. The p,,sition on a map of the orld of the continents 
with their chier countries and islands, and of the 
«,cêans with their chief seas, gulfs, and bay.. 
:. The physical, political, and commercial geoaphy of 
North America. 
4. The D,,minion of Canada as a whole and its Provinces. 
3. Ontario in particular with ifs local commerce: the 
leadin articles of exchange, the chicf collecting 
and distriLuting centres, the means of transport, 
and the commercial routes. 
6. The study of selected portions of the Geography 
P, eader: supplementary reading. 



COURSE OF STUDY 

FORSI III, SENIOR GRADE 

(Consult Chapters X and XI.) 
1. Elementary notions of the sun, moon, stars, and earth 
in space. 
2. An outline of physica|, po|itica], and commercial 
geography of thc 1)«»minion of ('anada and of cach 
of its l'rovinces, with the most important local 
COmlncrce of each. the articles of exchang, thc 
chicf collccting and distributing centres: means of 
transportation, the commercial routes. 
3. The 3Iother-eoultry in gcneral. 
4. The British Empire and ifs chief component parts. 
5. The further study of the ç:eography Reader; supplc- 
mentarv readin._,z. 

FOR3I IV, JUXIç)R ç:RADE 

(Consult Chapters XII and XIII.) 

1. The earth as a planet: its form, size, motions, and 
seasons. 
2. Latitude and longitude. 
3. The important physical features of the earth: con- 
tinent structure and outline--the great mountain 
chains, highlands and slopes: the great river basins 
and river svstems; the coast-lines. 
4. A brief studv of Europe, and N'orth and South 
America, with reference to their principal physical 
and politieal divisions: their natural resources, in- 
dustries and products; their leading routes of travel 
and commerce; their great centres of population. 



GEOGRAPHY 

FOR5I IV, SENIOR GRADE 

(Consult Chapters XIV and XV.) 
:l. Winds: elcmcntary idcas of the nature and the in- 
fluence of the prevailing winds, land and sea 
brcczcs, trade-wind.% polar wind., nd monsoons. 
. Causes of occan currcnt.; lhe direction and the in- 
fluence of the iulf Strcam, the Japan Currcnt, and 
the I)olar ç'urrents ; causes of lnvcmcnts of rides. 
3. Eclipses «,f the ,¢un and 
-t. ('limate: thc principal influences which determine or 
which modify thc climate of a place, and which 
affcct the products. 
5. The light and heat zones, and the distribution of 
1)lant.¢ and aninmls. 
6. The study of North and South America continued, 
with a bricf study of Europe, Asia, Africa. Aus- 
tralia, and New Zealand with reference fo the prin- 
cipal physical and political divisions, climate, 
natural rcs¢)urces, industries, and product.% routes 
.f travcl and commerce, and the chier centres of 
l.-Tulati«,n. A more dctailed study of Canada; the 
Unitcd States. 
7. A me)re dctailed studv of the component parts of the 
Briti.h Empire, espccially in their relation o 
('anada. 



GEOGRAPHY 

('] IA I'TEI', I 

THE TEACHING OF" GEOGRAI'HY 

TIII.: POINT OF VIEW 
THE TEACItER nlust bave correct ideas of t]te nature and 
scope of geography before he tan understand and apply 
rational methods of teaching if. The old definition, 
" Geography is a description of the earth", led teachers 
fo regard the subject as a mere collection of facts, largè]y 
unconnected, fo be memorized. From this, point of view, 
the chief work in geography was the learning of defini- 
tions, boundaries of countries, names and locations of 
cities, rivers, capes, etc., with litt!e attention to relation- 
ship. 
Nothing eould be more deadening fo an active, in- 
quiring mind than this meth.d of teaehing this subjcet. 
Fortunate]y in rccent years a marked change bas taken 
place in the point of view fr.m which the subjeet is 
approached; but if teachers are t» be judged by their 
actions rather than by their speech, geozaphy is sti]l, in 
the case of many teachers, a collection of factz to be 
memorized; the only difference lies in the endeavour fo 
make the subject more attractive by adding some in- 
teresting information. When, however, the subject is 
given unity by some central idea, then geography ceas¢ 
fo need adventitious aids to make if interesting. 
5 



6 GEOGRAPHY 

HO]f E GEOGRAPIIY 
This central idea is supplied \vhen we approach 
geography from the point of view of man's relation fo his 
enironment. Every mind, even that of the youngest 
pupil at school, is intcrestcd in the uscs of things, or, in 
,,ther words, their relations fo one another and fo man. 
In ordcr, howcvcr, that these relations may be under- 
st,,,,,1 and that they may have a meaning when applied te 
distant |,copies, if is necessary that they should be ]earned 
hv a«tual observation rather than frein books, especially 
in the early stages of the subject. Frein this point of 
view, the study of thê locality in wh|ch the pupil lires 
be«omes thê starting-point in the studv of geography. 
If the pupil has gone about his own home region with his 
oves elosed, the words of the text-book in geography ean 
bave no real meaninzfor him; and even if he is ah]e te 
reoeat the defitaitions or explanations of the book, if is 
net evidence hat he really understands what he is 
saying. 
TIIE TWOVOLD ASPECT OF GEOGRAPHY 

The studv of geography bas two faces, one looking 
toward nature, the other toward man. It is thus related 
on one side t,, nature stu,ly and elementary science, and 
on the other fo history. Af first it is a study of nature 
and man, not |,ooks. Land and water, vegetation and 
«limate, products and transportation within the home dis- 
trict, furnish the subject-matter. The pupil observes the 
|,ills and val|eys with their slopes, the streams and their 
direction. He examines the soils on the hilltops and in 
the va|leys and notes differences. He observes the rains 
washing the soil down the slopes and the streams carrying 
part of if awav. This is nature af work. 



TWOFOLD ASPECT OF GEOGRAPHY 7 

I[e observes wo«lland and pasture laud, secs what crops 
are grou on the highlands and in the rk.h vallcys, secs 
how the crops when rcaped are carried away bv road, 
railway, or water-way, and notes the interchange of goods 
between the farm and the town. I[e visits local indus- 
tries, secs raw materials and the manufactured pr,»du«ts, 
and learns about their transportation. IIe secs numbers of 
men combining for industrial ends and hegins fo realize the 
dependeuce of each upon his fellows. This is man at work. 
From the early studies in geoaphy fo the latest these 
twofold aspects of the suhject must be kept in view. For 
example, the influence of heat on nmn's life may be shown 
by a comparison of the peoples whose native home is on 
the borders of the Arctie ()cean, in Ontario, or in the 
West Indies. The influence of heat and moisture on 
vegetation may be illustrated by a comparison of the arid 
lands of the Sahara and the forest-laden plains of P, razil : 
their influence on man's occupations will f«dlow naturaHv. 
The early British settlements in America lay along the 
Atlantic coast-line and were walled in hy the Al]e.hany 
Mountains: the French settlements lay along fhe St. 
Lawrence Riverthe open highway fo the heart of the 
continent. 
When a pupil realizes that a c«,untrv like (rcat Britain 
bas vast beds of coal and iron, lac will .¢oon connoct, in 
thought, the presence of these two and the manufa,.ture 
there of nail., knives, agricultural implcmont.¢, steol rails. 
otc. : he will sec whv (-,'lasgow, M'anchester, Shoflïeld, al:,l 
Birmin.zham are popular centre.s. Another stop. and ho 
will sec why the principal import. are wheat, fl,,ur, moat, 
and other food supplies. A step further, and he will sec 
whv there are great ports af Glas._,,ow, Liverpool, Bristol, 
Hull, and London. The physical and the human aspects 
go hand in hand. 
2 



$ GEOGRAPHY 

TIIE PRACTICAL VALUE OF GEOGRAPIIY 

Properly taught, geography trains the pupil's powers 
of observation, commands his interests, develops his 
imagination, and exercises his judgment. But while this 
subject trains the mind in the ways indicated, itis also 
of great practical utility in the affairs of life. 
"ff iII.out a fair klmwledge of geography the current 
events of the day cannot be understood; many events of 
history will be unintêlligible; and the studcnt of literature 
will often be as much astray as the school-girl who, while 
reading Tte Merclant of Venfce, placed Venice in the 
south of Russia. Even fo know where places are and what 
the pe-ples of these places do, adds much fo one's intelli- 
gencc; but when the relation betweên climate and surface 
conditions and the people has bêen studied, and the pupil 
becomes conscious of a rowing poil'er which carries him 
on fo higher stages of development, he feels that thêre are 
few problems of economics and history which his knowledge 
of geoaphy does hot help him fo understand. 
The pupils of to-day will be the farmers, the manu- 
facturers, and the merchants of to-morrow; and itis 
impossible for one fo eope suceessfully with the eomplieated 
problerns of supply and demand, of trade and commerce, 
with«mt swh a geeral knowledge of the part of the worl,1 
tO W]l[(l]l lits M.ine,qs is direc.ted as wil] enable him profit- 
al»Iv te, make an inten.qive studv of that region. 
As ail the natural sciences are funded npn oh.erva- 
ton of the ordinary phenornena, a careful stndy of home 
geography opens the door of these studies; thus geography 
may be regarded as the key fo all the elementary sciences. 



CHAPTER II 

PRINCIPLES IN'-VOLVED IN TEACHING GEOGRAPHY 

HOIE 3EOGrtaPIIY FIItST 
ONE 01 the first principles in the teaching of geo- 
graphy, as also in the teaching of ail other subjects, is 
that if should be based upon the knowledge and experience 
which bave already been acquired by the learner. It can- 
hot be based upon mere words or definitions; these are, 
or should be, (he generalizations resulting fr,)nl many acts 
of observation, and not more meaningless f,»rmulas to be 
repeated parrot-like by the pupil. As we hare alreadv 
pointed out, if is from the home or out-of-door geography 
that this necessarv experience i.q acquired by the learner; 
for if is only by a careful study of the near that tbe 
remote and unseen tan be understood. 
If is dicult, if not impossible, fo teach pupils with a 
nleagre experience whv there is a great citv at the head 
of ocean navigation on the St. Lawrence River, or how 
Niagara Falls bas affected sbipping on Lakes Erie and 
Ontario as well as the position and owth of cities on 
these lakes. But with an adequate store of ideas derived 
from a eareful and swtema{ie sIudv of home geoaphy, 
the pupil bas a solid foundation on which the teaeher 
mav build. 
In addition fo supplying true and vivid basal idea, 
he s[udv of borne geoaphy arouses a spirit of inquiry 
concerning the subjec[, which should lead fo further inveg- 
figation and studv. This is the rea] goal of all teachin.; 
for the important marrer is hot that the pupil knows 
certain things, but that he sees the meaning of what he 
9 



10 GEOGRAPHY 

bas ]carwd, and that he bas acquired such a ]ikig for 
lhe subject as vill induce bim to continue its study. 

.k STUllY tF RELATIONS 
.\. we bave alrt.a,ly pointe,l out, the study of er,graphy 
.hould c,msist ot in the mere memorization of facts, but 
i the study of relations. Af every step the pupil should 
I,e brought face fo face with the notion of cause and effect. 
The rein,1 dêlights in tracing the causes of things, and so 
h,ng as the work on hand is of such a nature as fo exercise 
the ju,lzmcnt , the pupil is intereste,l. The boy or girl 
l;kes a pleasure in tra«ing the origin of cities an] towns 
aud in a(.counting for their situation; in showing why 
«'t, rtain parts of the earth are desert regions, as along the 
wcst coast of S,uth America; in explaining why the 
s.,uhcru parts of South America and the northern parts 
,,f Europe in the saine latitude, south and north, bave 
similar rainfalIs, etc. When we seek fo determine the 
oriin ,,f the cotton industry of the west of England. the 
shipbuilding on the Clyde, the fishinz industry of New- 
f,,undlan,l, the production of wheat in the Prairie Pro- 
rinces or Arzentina. the great coal and steel industries 
,f ydney, Cape Breton, we final our classes at once 
brightening up and doing their best fo discover adequate 
TIIE IWDUf'TIVE IET]IOD 
In toachiz eoyraphy the inductive method is fol- 
l,,wv,1. That is to say, the pupils are required fo observe 
l,articular examples and fo compare these, in ordor that 
they mav discover the general principle that is common 
t., them all. 
Observations upon natural phenomena should be ruade 
nd recorded in ail grades. These should vary from 



CORRELATION WITH OTHER STUDIES 11 

simple records of sunshine, eloud, rain, show, and wind, 
fo nmre dilficult observations where the therrn«»meter, 
baronmter, and rain-gauge are used. 
followed the daily marking of thc shadow line through«,ut 
the school year, will reach correct infcrences whieh evcn 
some of the older pupils, who have learncd their work 
frorn books alone, cannot make. Continued observation 
land and water forms and comparison of related forms 
with one another are the only means of reachinz correct 
generalizations. For example, how tan a pupil get a 
correct notion of a vallev who knows a vallev fr¢,m observa- 
tion of only one 
the Thamcs, or thc Trent? Ilow can such a pupil evcr 
have a correct idea of the vallev of the 
the Mississippi ? Thcre must be, therefore, manv ob:erva- 
tmns of different vallevs and comparisons of these, fo 
eliminate the incidental and retain only the common 
features in the enerauzatmn. 
CORRELATION WITH OTHER STUDIES 
It need scareely i»e pointed out. that the stu,ly of 
geoaphy should, wberever possible, be correlated with 
the other studies of the school course. F,,r example, 
history is unintelligible without geography. In the 
ginning, home geography and nature study are alrno.t 
svnonvrnou. . . terres. Lanmge lessons are frequently base,l 
upon the discoveries rnade in the pursuit of home ge- 
graphy and, when the pupil is further advanced, tbe 
geography lessons supply excellent topics for descriptive 
composition. In the representation of land and water 
forms, the pupil is given practic in clav rnodellin and 
art; and, final]y, alrnost every department of natura| 
science is required in explaining the phenomena whi«l 
form the basal work in geoaphy. 



CItAPTER III 

GEOGRAPHIC AIDS 

II,»:« geography is a matter of direct observation, but 
when a distant region is te be studied, realistic word 
pictures, globes, maps, models, picture.% sample products, 
and descriptive reading must be used te enable the pupil 
tt, ferre a elear conception of its geographic features. 

GLOBES 
Beginning with F,n'm Il, globes should be use,1 te give 
a view of the earth as a whole--its ferre, ifs divisions into 
laud and water, the relative positions of the continents and 
the oceans; ifs hot, temperate, and cold regions, etc. 
If eaeh pupil in Ferres III and IV bas a small globe, 
four inches in diameter, the positions of equator, tropics, 
polar circles, meridians, etc., may be readily indicated bv 
means of lines drawn upon ifs surface or rubber bands 
held in place bv small taeks. 
A zobe sixteen inches in diameter is one of convenient 
size for the «lass-room, as four inches in length on if 
represents a thousand mlles on the earth's surface. In 
addition te the ordinarv globe, every school should bave 
another covered with a slate surface. 

APS 
A map fs a shorfhand represenfafion of a number of 
zeographical facts. The pupil must be tught fo interpret 
ifs symbols, that is, he must he taught te read a map and 
te get thoughts frein if as frein a book. Te a certaiv 
etent, the studv of the map is a substitute for 



GEOGRAPHIC AIDS: MAPS 

13 

«bservation. ]t is a window through which the pupil 
looks out upon the country he is studying. 
Wben the pupil bas learned fo read maps, he must be 
lcd fo apply tbe information obtained fo practical prob- 
lcms, sucb, for example, as the kinds of products in dif- 
fereut regions, the probable excbange of these products, 
and the routes and means by which such exchanges are 
accomplished. 
The teacher should, both by example and precept, 
cncourage the habit of locating on maps all places men- 
tioned in history, literature, and gcncral reading; and 
whcn books of travel arc being rcad, tbc map should bc 
frccly used in tracing the progress of the travcllcr. 
Frechand map-sketching is a device for training pupi]s 
to read mal)s ; fo locate mountain ranges, important rivcrs, 
and large cities; fo indicate, by shading, regions of anlple 
rainfall and the prevailing industries of certain districts, 
such as agriculture, lumbering, and mining; fo show trade 
routes, etc. 
]3ecause of tbeir influence upon climate, etc., pupils 
should know the gcneral shapes of tbe continents, the 
general direction of the coast-lines, the grcat peninsula. 
and arms of tbe sea. Only a general accuracy of outline 
is required ; much rime sbould not be d.evoted fo securing 
great accuracv of dctail in map-skctching. This may be 
secured b.y means of outline maps, which enable the pupil 
to concentrate his attention upon a particular point with- 
out wasting rime upon unnecessary details. 
For class teaching, an outline map on the black-board, 
on which the features are marked as they are taught from 
day fo da)', is a most effective method of teaching map 
geography, as attention is centred upon one thing af a 
rime. The outline on the black-board shou]d be fair]y 



14 GEOGRAPHY 

accuratc and should hot bave names marked on it; other- 
wi.e its use in rexicw will bc very slight. Such maps 
mav be u.¢cd with great advantagc in the history lesson. 
(c or more maps should be hanging on thc walls of 
the school-ro«m ail the day. They should hot be rol]ed 
up and kcpt i a corner of the room. Many an important 
gcographical fact may be learned incidentally by the pupils 
frm maps that are constantly before their eyes. 
L.c-o-DS 
In tcaching geography, nmch use should be ruade of 
lhe blaek-board. utlines of continents ad eountries, 
cross sec.ti,,ns of these illustratin= their physical features. 
and ,liazrams marking places, when drawn on the black- 
I,,,ard as lhe less,m is pro«eeding, help the pupil to 
un,lerstad if lnueh more clearlv. In ,lescribing the 
position of Montreal, for example, how nluch elearer it 
becomes when a sketeh of the islaml is ruade and the 
«itv oullinêd in ils proper position. Since mthing appear. 
«,n the I»la,.k-boar,1 outline but that whieh is being taught. 
the mind of the pupil is not confused by the many detail. 
-f the -rdinarv map. The subjeet thus develops more 
clêarly in the min,l of the learner as if is being tauht bv 
tle teacher. The use of coloured crayons, fo distin=uish 
(,ne part from another, answers the purpose of the tint: 
a,,l shades employed in the ordinarv school maps. 
Every sehool .hould. if possible, bave a set of slated 
naps. Such map. tan be used like the black-board and 
1,are the advantg of being more accurafe in outline than 
hose drawn I,v the teacher on the black-board. 
A. the lesson proceeds, if should be sumrnarized on 
'the black-homard. This summary emphasizes fhe main 
fcatures of thc lcsson, prevenfs the tcacher from becominff 
,liscursive, and is conducive fo svstematic work. 



GEOGRAPHIC AIDS: NEWSPAPERS 

15 

N EW.'4PAI»EI[S 

Tl:e systelnatic use of newspapers and magazines 
school is of great hclp in teaching geography. The stu,lv 
of currcnt events enables pupils to extend their knowle,lgc 
of geography by reading, as distinguisl)e,1 from actutl 
study. They lcarn geographical idcas by simply reading 
with an attentiott born of intcrest. Itca,ling thus bc¢«»mes 
an habitual review and is constantly sen,ling the investi- 
gatc, r fo the text-book for more information. Ire, ms and 
a,lvertiscncnts relatin.,.., fo the estabhshmcnt of new in- 
dustries, to the ct, nstrut.tit, n t»f railwavs or canals, and 
chanzcs affecting tralsp,»rtati«»n and navigatim, furnish 
ntm'h information and a]so lead to a foreca.tinZ ,,f thc 
lr,»bable changes rcsu]ling fr,m thê new comlitims. 
pu]»il se»on secs that altos»st êverv dav brinzs a!»mt 
geozraphieal change--daily some new indnstrv i. 
some new town is founded, or some product is diseovere,1 
in a new region. His horizon widens. He feels a 
stimulus. No bettcr preparation f,»r m.quirin klmwledZe 
-f a business lire ean be ruade than tbe cultivation of the 
abilitv fo recognize the êver-e]lanzing conditi,-,n. of business 
dcpendent upon ever-changing get»._,zraphical c, mditi,»ns. 
There are several wavs in which newspapers mav be 
used in sehoo]. Tbe /cacher mav mark se]cc/ions with a 
eoloured pencil in a paper accessible to tbe pupils, or he 
nav clip these and put them up c,n the bulletin bcar,1. 
afterwar«l puttinff away the me,re important ,f them 
a larze manilla envehpe or in a serap-b««k. He shoul,1 
bear in min«l that the mere preservatit,n of these seleetions 
is in itself hot of so much value as the discussions as 
whieh are of suflîcient importance to preserve. Pupils are 
tc be encourazecl fo clip for thernselvês and f«,r the class. 
They should, howevêr, be cautione«l against acceptinz 



16 GEOGRAPHY 

evêry geographica] item they may see in print as abso]utely 
rêliab]e. The discussion on these lieras shou]d, of course. 
take place when the news is quite frêsh. 

SUPI'LEM I:NTAIY RFAI)INO 
No text-l,ook on gcography can be sufficient]y fu]l fo 
prcsen/ all that a pupil mav desire fo know regarding a 
rcgion that is being studied. Sets of Geography Readers 
suitable fer all the grades, books of travel, and accounts 
of -yages of discovcry should be placed in the school 
library, and the pupils should he encouraged fo use them. 
Magazines frequently contain wcll-writtcn articles on 
geograI»hical t,»pics whieh the teaeher mav read fo his 
class; and when the teaehêr in his general reading meets 
with fine descriptive passages, he should make a note of 
them and use them in their proper geogTaphieal connee- 
tion. Government Rêports are smaetimes of great value 
tu ea]]ing attention te, geographical changes. As these are 
c«,mpiled with care, their statements may be depended 
upon to be accurate. They may be obtained hy application 
t,, the Dcputy Miniser of the Department whose Report 
is dcsircd. 
The following method of using supplementary reading 
i su,.zested" After the teacher has given an outline of 
lhe geography of a country, the pupils become responsible 
ï,,r the interêsting details. This means reading and re- 
seareh on their part. They should be required fo report. 
,rally or in writing, the results of their researehes. Each 
pupil naav he held responsible for some phase of the sub- 
ject in hand. Experience shows thaf, in general, pupils 
are pleased at reporting fhe new information fo the elass. 
Facts/z]caned from such researchcs are usually retained. 



GEOGRAPHIC AIDS: PICTURES 

17 

PICTURES 
A pieture of a building, a derrick, a landseape, a lck 
of a canal, or a volcano in eruption, teaches oftentimes 
more clearly than the printed page; if relis a plain story 
which appeals to the rein,l, excites intercst, and leaves a 
distinct and vivid mental image. 
Let us, for example, look af the picture in the first 
eolumn of page 122 of the Ontario ,'«ltool (Icograplty. 
We can easily read the title of the picture, but what in- 
formation can we obtain from looking af the objects shown 
in if ? hTame the ol,jeets in the foreground of the picture. 
What naine would you give fo fhe sheet of water in the 
distance? Were these rocks always this shape? ._re they 
ehanging front day to da:)'? What is the principal aent 
in erosion? Final IIopewell Cape on the map on page 
125. Why are the rocks worn away more rapidly near 
the hase? Give reasons why no trees grow upon the 
smaller rock. Why do hot the trees extend further down 
on the large rock? What bas beeome of the rock which 
at one rime joined these rocks to the mainland? Whv 
bave these rocks withstood the action of waves and rides 
l(,nger than saine other rocks? Does the size of the trecs 
give you anv information regar,]ing the rime the erosion 
I,as been acting about the base of this rock? What bas 
become of the material that has l,een w«,rn awav ? II,,w high 
are these rocks? W-hy is the man shown in the picture? 
If the man were rive feet ten inehes in height, caleulate 
the height of each rock. What will probably be the fate 
of these rocks? What will be the first great movement in 
the large rock? Will the wearing away of the mass be 
faster or slower then? Why? Final other pictures in 
this book that show the wearing away of a eoast. Find 
pictures that show the huilding up of a coastal plain. 



I GEOGRAPHY 

Many of the pictures in this book are worthy of care- 
fui stu,ly, aad the teacher should direct the pupil's atten- 
tion te» cach picture by questions similar to the above. 
Aftcr a few pictures have becn studied by the pupils 
and tcachcr together, the pupils should be asked fo describe 
one or more of these in writ]ng. This, as well as what 
follows, provids excellent seat work in written composition. 
Examhm the plctures in the geography referrig fo 
transportation and notice ihe various methods slown. 
State the country in which each method is in use. Look 
af t],e l,i«'tures that show bridges. In what country is 
«.a«h bridge round? What is thc nature of the tralc? 
]h,w «.an vo tell? Coml,rc pic.turcs that show the drcss 
«,f [bc people of thc varie,us countries. Try to account 
f«,r the material used and ihe stylo of the garments. Studv 
picturcs /]at show typical rural industries in Ontario. 
Naine the industries shown in eaeh pieture. Deseribe the 
rations industries. What industries carried on in other 
parts of Canada are pictured? 
Therc is hardly a limit fo the vast amount of informa- 
flou tha mav be gained from a study of the picturc 
sl,own in the tet-book. The papils of Form IV may. for 
examplc, make a studv of the p]ctures that sh.w varie, us 
histor]c styles of arc]dtecture. They will then be n a 
better pos]tùm fo appreciae the architecture of places, 
governmcn bu]dlngs, churehes, etc. 
In ad«]iton o the sudv of tbe picures n the ex- 
book, teachers shou]d make a collection of cus and photo- 
graphs for use in schoof Thee shou]d be mounted on 
cardboard and indexed, so ha fley may be ealv found 
when needed. 
When there is a school ]anfern. fui| ue shou]d be ruade 
of if. In this wav the teacher is furnished with an oppor- 



GEOGRAPHIC AIDS: EXCURSIONS 

19 

tunity fo traw out his pupils and fo supplcmcnt thc tcxt- 
book with such information as is relevant fo the subject 
and adapted fo the class. 

STEREOSCO PIC VIEWS 

The stereoscopic vicw has an adrantage over thc 
ordinary picture in that it rcprescnts objccts as havin 
thrce dimensions, instcad of showing mercly a fiat sur- 
face, as in a picture or diagram. As a result, objccts aro 
rnade fo appear before the eye as thcy are, with all their 
wealth of detail, and the observer is given the impression 
that he is looking af a rcal scene. The advantages of the 
use of the stereoscope in the school-r»om are trident. The 
pictures are incxpcnsive and arc ea»ily obtained. 

SCIIOOL EXCURSB)NS 

In addition fo the field study of home geoffraphy, there 
should be schol excursions to places of interest beyond 
the immediate neighbourhood of the school, such as 
quarries, mills, dairy farm.% mines, factories, and lumber 
camps. These put fresh life ail(1 new meaning into the 
subjects trcatcd of in the tcxt-book. Like all out-of-door 
geography, they give fo thc pupil thc neccs.¢ary first-hand 
kmwlc,lge which rcsu]s from t]lC ]earner's being brog]lt 
f)ce to face with the thing to bc studied. 
Open-air instruction is, howcver, attc,aded with manv 
diltïculties, arising partly from tlle fact that children. 
when out-of-doors, are accustomcd to entire frecdom and 
hot fo orderly study, and partly from the large number 
in the class, which compels the teacher to give his atten- 
tion fo only a few individuals af a rime. 



20 GEOGRAPHY 

GIL6.P II IC ILLU.STRATIONS 
The lopulation and area of countries or cities, the 
am«»unt of commerce carricd on, the value of l:he produc- 
li»ls of a ccuntry, are not fo be committed to mcmory; 
but af rimes if is of greal: service to know the proportion 
«»e thing bears to another. This cau be shown fo best 
adValtage by graphic illustrations, using lines, squares, or 
circles. Thus if a line a foot long is taken fo rcprcscnt 
the average hcight of the intcrior plateau of British 
('oluml»ia, if will require one three and a half feet long 
t« represent tle average height of Bo]ivia, one four feet 
1.,n.g fo represent the elevation of Tibet, and one seven 
in(.hes l«,ng fo represcnl: the average height of Switzer- 
lad. P,v means of a graphic illusl:ral:ion, if is easy fo 
show that S,utl America is just a little less than twicc 
as larg as Canada, and that Africa is a little more than 
three rimes as large. 
/IAP ZIODELLINO 
"The mosl: frequent form of map work cmploycd in 
the ]cwcr gra,lcs is some form of map modelling, either 
in sand, clay, or paper pulp. A few years ago such 
work was more common than il: is now, and the sand- 
table was an essential pari: of the equipment of any well- 
ordercd .school-r«om. 3[ap mode]]ing is capable of pro- 
dur.inff excellent rcsulls in fhe hands of a qualified 
toachcr, }ut in the hands of one ]ess experienced il 
]ikely fo })ç vory }»a,1, l)oth in character and in tle results 
that pupils secure. In order fo be effectif-e, one very 
c«»nstant and serious «]anger musl: be guarded against 
and that is the danger that pupils will visualize thc 
models of large areas, of which the vertical scale nust 
he seriously exagerated, and that tbey wi]l think that 
the region dcpicted actually looks like their mode]. 



GEOGRAPHIC AIDS: MAP MODELLING 21 

Praetically no models tan be ruade without vert,cal 
cxaggeration of sealê, which mea.s t»ver-steepened 
slopes, over-rugged pro»flics, and imi)»ssil»le landscapes. 
Even the skilfully ruade relief m«,dcls and maps fur- 
]ished by puldishers have fo be used with great caution 
in this regard. I[ow much more carefully must 
models nmde 1)y inexpcrt pupils he used, to preve]t 
err«»ncous ideas that only long and hard study will 
eorrect as the 'ears go on. Better a blank mind than 
¢)ne full of wrong impressions, is the verdict of anv 
teacher in the upper grades. Unlearning is harder for 
l»oth pupil and teacher than learning. 
"The best way to introduce this work is t» nlodcI 
the area fo be seen in the local landscape. By com- 
paring the slol»cs of the modcl with the sh»pes il nature, 
pul)ils nmy be led t» see h»w far fr«»m the truth thcir 
i)roduct is, and therefore how much more erroneou 
must be the model of any larger areas. 
" The first nodelling sh«»uld be te» show gcneral rela- 
tions and hot fo attempt fo show a given region. Let 
children represent fiat land, gentle sh»pes, strong slopes, 
and 'ery rugged regions, and judge their products with 
care. Thcn let thcm nmdcl the rcg¢,n within their 
visil»lc landscapc and c«»mparc the slopes of this nodcl 
wiIh the s]¢,p(.s they ]mve previou]y nadc. Let them 
see wheIher they bave shown w])«I they know fo be ent]e 
slopes as gcntlc s]opes, or, as wi]l more prol»ably 
result, in a verv mueh exa7geratcd wav. T]ms, b), suc- 
cessive steps, one can lead up fo the mode]s of ]arzer 
areas which show general relations only and do hot pre- 
tend fo show exact conditions. A model, or a relief 
:ap, of North America. for instance, that shows general 
relations, may be ruade the basis or even the climax of 



22 GEOGRAPHY 

ome effective work, but similar products which seem 
to in,licate tbat the sccti,,n considered is really picturcd 
are dangerous monstrosities that should be avoided with 
diligence and forcthougt. 
'" Map nmdelling bas its place as an effective means. 
«,f teaching, but its place is more secure with older than 
with younger pupils. This form of expression must 
alwavs be used with caution and should not be employed 
bv the follower of a b¢ok or a method who himself bas 
no natural abilitv ïor doing this wr, rk.:' 
Dod7e and Kirchwcy: Tle Teaching of Geograpby in 
Elementary ,"«lools. Rand, 3IcNal]y & Company. 
TIIE SA ND-T_t.BLE 
The sand-tablc is mcrcly a shallow tray, or box, of any 
(',»nvenicnt dimensions set on a table. The desired geo- 
7aphical f«,rm is moulded in sand. The sand-table is of 
u»c in furnishing the pupils with a means of expressing 
their ideas of the ordinary physical eah«res of the neigh- 
1,o«rlood. Instead of haring the pupils tell about these 
or write about them. they mav be modelled in sand. It 
nmv also be used sparingly fo illustrate those geographical 
features of wbich there are no examples in the vicinitv. 
These cannot be studied a home geoffrapby, but models 
of tbem mav be ruade in the sand-table. 

OTIIER 
('«,lle¢.tion. «»f minerals, of produetions »f 5»reign 
an«].¢. and of the implements and dress of different peoples. 
are of great interest tç pupils and are of value in giving 
,.,»nerete expression to what otherwise eould be expressed 
çnly in words. Pupils should be en:)uraged fo visii 
museums, and geographieal, botanieal, and zoologieal 
gardens whenever possible. 



('H-APTER IV 

FOR]I I, SENIOR GRADE 

DETAILS OF THE COURSE 

PL.X fo cover the ('ourse in one year, the rime u.qually 
required to complete the work of the ,qenior Grade of 
Form I. This tan be readily done, provided (a) tbat 
general notions only are taught, and (h) that lesson topics 
are chosen exclusively from what can be ohserved in the 
home locality. 
If is hot required that the work should he taught in 
the order as outlined below. Lessons should be given when 
the rime is most opportune. For example, a lesson on 
" Rain " may be taken on a rainy day ; on " Autumn ", in 
the fall of the year; on the " Full Moon ", when the moon 
is full, etc. 
Keep a record of all lessons taught. 

OBSERVATIONS OF LOCAL SURROUXDINGS 

Under this heading may be taken, as topics of class 
instruction, onlv those more or less permanent objects or 
landmarks that are likely fo attract attention. As these 
]essons must be based upon actual observations ruade bv 
the pupils themselves, only such topics should be selected 
as are connected with objects round in the locality. For 
example, if a mine, or a lighthouse, or a toll-ate, or a 
jail is in the neighbourbood, if becomes a legitimate object 
of class study. If, however such things are not found, 
obviously they can hot be used for observation purposes, 
and hence must hot, af this stage, be used as lesson topics. 
23 
3 



24 GEOGRAPHY 

In other words, what may be an appropriate less,m topic 
in one place may be quite inalTrvi)riate in anothcr. 

LESSON ToPI('S SUGGESTI':D 
Such topics as the following may bc usc,l for lcsson 
purposes : 
('(,untry. city. tmrn, village, farm, bd, line fente, r.ad. 
(.om'ession road, side road, town line, base-line, tol]-gate, 
strect, sùle-walk, lanc, bridge, culvcrf, fiehl, meadow, 
paslure, bush. park, elearing, orchard, garden, rocks, 
bou]dcrs, «hurch, scho«d, town-hall or township hall, fait 
grounds, bouse of refuge, public, library, jail, courf- 
]muse, cemetery, fort, mmmment, towcr, wharf, break- 
water, picr. data. lighthouse. 
For hints on teachinz the following topics, see " Sug- 
gestions for Lcssons ". Chaptcr V: Country, town, village, 
roads, the school, house of refuge. 

2. (a) GENERAL NOTIONS OF DIRECTION 

The pupils are already more or !ess familiar with the 
ffeneral terres denoting direction. Ilence. all that is re- 
qnired is to give them an opporIunity in elass fo use such 
ierms definitely and conscimslv. In this way their 
meaning and application are likelv fo be so impressed 
npon the pupils that they shauhl be able fo use them 
mtelligently and freely in ordinary conversation. 

LES,ON TOPIC SUGGESTED 

Vp, down: ahove, below; upward, downward ; skyward. 
earthward ; forward, backward, sideways ; front, side, back; 
heside, behind, over, under, beyond, between; outward, 
inward; right, left; east, west, north, south: north-west, 
north-east, south-east, south-west; windward, leeward. 



GENERAL NOTIONS OF TIME 25 

:For hints on tcaching the following topics, see" Sug- 
gestions for Lessons ", Cbapter V: Up, down; front, side, 
back, etc.; right, left; east, wcst, north, south; windward. 
leeward. 
. (b) GENERAL NOTIONS OF TIME 
LESSON TOPICS SUGGESTED 
Day, night, morning, evening; sunrise, sunset; day- 
break, twilight ; noon, forenoon (a.m.), afternoon (p.m.); 
hour, minute, day (2- hours) ; week, days of week. mid- 
week, week end; fortnight; to-day, to-morrow, yesterday; 
month, names of months, number of da)'s in each-- 
Thirty da)'s has September, 
April, .:lune, and November. 
February has twenty-eight alone, 
And ail the test have thirty-one, 
But ]cap year coming once in four 
February then has one da)' more. 
For hints on teaching the following topics, sec " Sug- 
gestions for Lessons", Chapter V: Day, n ight, minute, 
hour. 
3. SIMPLE OBSERVATIONS OF WEATHER, SEASONS, ETC. 
(a) Weatl{er : 
Advantage should be takcn of wet and dry days, of 
warm and cold days, of rain storms, etc., for conversa- 
tional ]essons. On|y common phenomcna with their 
general effects should be discussed here. The pupils of 
this Grade have not the maturity of mind required fo 
understand the physical causes of such phenomena. Keep 
a simple daily weather record on the black-board or on 
a large car(] and, wilh the pupils' he]p, fill in daily. 



26 GEOGRAPHY 

LESSON OEOPICS SUOESOEED 
Wet, dry, warm. hot, sunny, cloudy, cold, frosty, 
wintry, cahn, windy, stormy, misty, ïoggy, etc. 
Winds, clouds, f,»g, tain, thunder and lighting, rain- 
b-w, white frost, iee, SHOW, hall, sleet, drought. 
For hints on teaching the following topies, see " Sug- 
gestions for Lessons", {°hapter V: Wet, ,lry, ce|d, etc.; 
win«]s; c]ouds, fogs; tain; thunder and lightning; dew; 
]ce. 

(b) The sun: 
Ob.ervations of the sun as the source of ]ight and heat, 
ifs progress fr,»m sunrise te sunset, its absence during the 
night, its shifting shadows, relative lengths of day and 
n ight. 

(«) T'he moon: 
Observatiou.s of its changing position and appearanee, 
its source of light. The "Big Dipper" and the North 
Star. 
For hints on the teaching of these topics, see " Sug- 
gestions for Lessons ", Chapter V : The Su»,, The Moon. 

(d) The seasons : 
Xames of the four seasons; the months comprised in 
each: a few of the chief characteristics of ea('h season 
ziving special attention te the varying ]ength of day and 
niZht, te the character of weather, and te the ehief out- 
door activities of play and work. 
These ge)êral observations may be followed by separate 
lessons on each of the seasons, taken only in season. 
For hints on teachin the following topie, see "" Sug- 
gestions for Lessons", Chapter V: Autumn. 



LAND AND WATER FORMS 

27 

4. THE LAND AND WATER FORMS IN 
THE NEIGHBOURHOOD 
(1) According fo the Course of Study for this Grade, 
simple observations of the land and water forms in the 
neighborhood are fo be taught. In planning a series of 
lessons covering this prescribed outline of work, the 
teacher is recomulcnded, at the beginning of the terre, to 
make a Iist of the land and waer forms that are actually 
ïound in the neighbourhood and to confine the lesson 
topics fo the list thus ruade. 
]Iany localities in eastern and northern (}ntario are 
supplied with land and water forms in almost endless 
variety. In such places the teaching of these f.rlns will 
present little dilticulty, as the .l»servati«»lml method mav 
be freely used. In lnany other parts of the Province, how- 
ever, the teacher must be content with a nmch smaller 
variety, lnformally, and fo supplement the ab.ve ('ourse, 
the wide-awake teacher may, howcver, find «»pp«rIunities 
fo give his pupils an elementary notion of many of tbese 
land and water forms, even when they are not actuallv 
ïound in the locality. 
In the spring rime and after a heavy rainfall, the school 
yard, the roadsides, and neighbouring fields are covered 
with innulnerable miniature lakes, islands, capes, straits, 
ete., which will serve fo illustrate nmst of the land and 
water forlns of the wide world. Why shouhl use hot be 
lnade of these very eoncrete objects fo inculcate correct 
geographieal notions? Ail that is required is fo teach 
that this is an island because if is surrounded by water: 
that that is a strait because if joins tvo ]arger bodics of 
water; etc., etc. Then set the pupil fo discover for him- 
self as many islands, straits, etc., as possible. This prae- 



28 GEOGRAPHY 

twal work will prove a source of great delight fo him, and 
lbe knowledge thus gained will be accurate and lasting. 
(2) No ski]led teachcr in this grade of work wastes 
his mvn time and that of his pupils by mere]y talking 
about things and requiring that the exact words of a book 
dcfinition sb«,uhl be nlemorizcd. In aequiring his general 
knowledge of the land and water forms in the neighbour- 
bood. wbv sbould tbe child not be allowed to get if in tho 
way in whieh be g«3t his klmwledge of a hat, or of a do, 
or of a table, etc.? He learned fo know these things by 
sen.ing them, hv coming into contact with them. Whv 
sbould be not get his knowledge of a hill, or of a plain, or 
of a brook, in the saine way? 
Take a brook for illustration. By one method the 
pupil may, by hearing the teaeher talk, talk, talk, learn 
the stereotyped definition, "A brook is a small stream of 
fresh water flowing over the land ". By the other method 
he will study the brook itself and may discover for him- 
self the following: .\ brook is running water. The water 
is fresh. The brook runs downward. The brook winds 
about. Where the brook is swift, the slope of the land is 
steep. In some parts the bottom of the brook is rocky, 
or gravel]y, or muddy. The water flows slowlv over the 
muddv bottom. T'he brook grows larger as if flows down- 
ward. The land slopes to the brook on both sides, etc., etc. 
Which pupil knows more about the brook, the one 
who learned the definition bv hearing the teacher tal]i" 
about if. or the one who ]earned the facts by .çeeing and 
discovering for bimself? Whieh pupil has gained the 
zreater power in the stu,]v? Wbicb bas the know]edge 
be.t suited fo hi. later life? The pupil ba. a ri»-ht fo 
learn fo des(.ribe objects in, ]is ou'n woràs, in order that 
lle may gain in his power fo sec and fo express. W-bat 



OBSERVATIONS OF LOCAL ACTIVITIES 29 

right bas the teacher to deprive him of growth merely 
that, for promotion examination or for other purposes, he 
may appear to know what he really does not kuow? 

LESSON TOPICS SUGGESTED 

Hill, valley, ravine, plain, island, stream, rapids, water- 
fall, pond, lake, canal, harbour, drain, ditch, swamp, etc., 
as found in the neighbourhood. 
For hints on teaching thc following topics, ste " Sug- 
gestions f»r Lessons", Chal»ter V: IIills; a diteh. 

SIMPLE OBSERVATIONS OF LOCAL ACTIVITIES 

I[ELATING T(} TIIE IIOME 
Foods and their preparation, such as flour, meal, 
butter, cheese, meats. 
Clothing material, such as wool, cotton, linen, silk, 
leather; their source, but not thcir manufacture unlcss 
earried on locally. 

RELATING TO THE 

Activities, such as seeding harvesting, thrashing, 
marketing, fruit-growing, poultry-keeping, clearing land, 
lumbering, drainage, etc., as carried on by local farmers. 

OTIIER ACTIVITIES 
The store, post-office, shop, factory, mill, railway, 
gravel-pit, brick-yard, quarry, mine, fishery, etc. 
For hints on teaching the following topics, see " Sug- 
gestions for Lessons", Chapter V: ]3read; the farm; thc 
store; the cheese factory; the railway. 



CHAPTER V 

FORM I, SENIOR GRADE 

SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS 

LOCAL URROUNDINGS 

COUNTRY, TOWN, VILLAGE 
THE CorXTn¥. if hot toc rough or rocky, is niade up of 
farm. or homesteads. On the farm are the farmhouse 
in whi(.h the fariner lires, barns and stables for his lire 
stock alid prodm.e, fields, orchard, bush, etc. Neighbours 
lire farther apart tban in towns and villages. Why? 
The village is hot far away. What is a village? ame 
the nearest village. What roads ]ead fo if? In villages 
the lots are much smaller tlmn farms, the bouses are close 
t.ether, there is a post-office, che or more stores, shops, 
«hurches. etc. Why is a near-by village a benefit to the 
surrounding farmers ? 
The town is much ]arger than a village. What is the 
carest town? What road or roads ]ead to if? Why is if 
sometimes called a rnarket-town? What is a rnarket? 
In a town îhe ],s are sma]], the buildings are close 
?.ether, aile] therc are many stores, shops, factories, 
ehurches, and otber buildings. The publie school bas a 
number of rooms or departments with a teacher for each. 
aiH] tbere is a high school. What is a high school? The 
roads are called streefs, are lighted at night, and there 
are .ide-walks fo walk on. Many people work in 
stores, factories, and offices. 
30 



SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS: THE SCHOOL 31 

ROADS 
]",oads are used for travel. They are calIed " public 
roads" because ever:ybody bas the right fo use them. 
What is a lanc? For what is it u.¢ed? In the country, 
roads are known by different names, su«h as concessi,,n, 
side road, town-line ,r boundarv. ('m.cssion road. usuallv 
run lengthways in tbe towship; side roads are cros.-rq»ads 
used for getting ïrom one concession te, ara,tirer. Town- 
lines or b«»undary roads stJparate t.wnshil»s. What is thc 
naine of your lownship? In towns what are r«»ads called? 
l;ridges atd eulverts arc built on r,ads in ortier 
streams and drains. What is the differcnce betwcen a 
culvert and a bridge? Farmers living along thc re, ad are 
sometimes required to help to keép it i répair. Such 
work is called road-work, and the ma wh,» bas the over- 
sight of it is km, wh as the pathmaster. Why is he given 
this naine? ]oads are ruade better by grading up awl bv 
putting gravel on them. What is meant by " grading up " 
the road? Take imaginary drives fo a near-by village. 
church, factory, etc., to show knowledge of roads. IIow 
did people travel in pioneer davs belote there were regular 
road s ? 
THE SCHOOL 
The township is divided into school scctions and a 
sehool is built in eaeh. In what part of your section 
tbe school plwed? I.s this tbe best place f,r if? Wby? 
What is the naine or number of your section ? If is placed 
in charge of trustees who are elected by the 1)eople. What 
is meant by "elected by the people"? Give the names 
of the trustees. The work of the school is fo train the 
boys and girls to become good citizens. When are men 
and women good citizens? Scbools in the country are 
known as rural schools. 



32 GEOGRAPHY 

/];OUSE OF REFUGE 
When penp]e become poor and friend]ess and too old 
or too ïeeble fo make their own living, they are some- 
rimes placed in a large home called a Ilouse of Refuge. 
Where is the lhmse of Refuge for your district situated? 
Vsually there is a farm in connection with it. Of what 
u.e would the farm be? The inmates get free board and 
l-d.zing, are kept eomfl,rtal:le, and are kindly treated. 
Those who are able are given light work fo do on the 
farm or in the bouse. 

DIRECTION 

UP, DOWN 
.qtand up. Sit down. Lc, ok up. Look down. Ho]d 
hauds up. Take hands clown. Point up. Point down. 
Lift f,v up. Let foot d,wn. Step up (on platform). 
,Iuml» d;,wn. Throw the hall up. Throw the ball d»wn. 
Which way is up the river? Down the river? 
Which of the following statements is true: 
Vp fo the sky or down fo the sky? Why? 
Up fo the earth or dowtl (, thc earth? Why? 
What did the little bird mcan when it sang: 
.%» I flew down, down, down, through the air. 
Up in the air I o flying again, 
Up in the ir and down. 
Up in the maplc tree, tree, tree, 
Look, and a tiny ne.t 3ou'Il see. 

Where is this nest? Why is if saler up there than 
down on the ground ? 
In a similar manner teach above, below, etc. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS: DIRECTION 33 

FRONT, SIDE, BACK, BESIDE, ETC. 
Place a book and a box on the desk. Ask the pupils 
in turn fo place the book in front of the box, at the side 
of the box, hack of the box, beside the box, behind the 
box, over the box, under the box, bewnd the hox,-between 
two boxes. Drill briskly. 
,'ary the exercise hy asking Mary to stand in front of 
Jean, af the side of Jean, back of .Iean, beside Jean, 
bebind Jean, beyond Jean, between Jean and Ilelen, etc. 
Locate A's farm with rêference to other farms. It is 
beside B's, beyond C's, between B's and l)'s, etc. 
RIGHT, LEFT 
If the pupils do not know which is the right hand 
and whicb is the left hand, tbey must be told. 
Raise the right hand. Raise the lêft hand. Which is 
the right-hand side of the body? The left-hand side? 
Shut the right eye. Shut the lêft eye. Touch the right 
êar. Touch the left ear. Put the right foot forward. 
Put the left foot forward. What is the boy's naine who is 
standing on your right-hand side? Qn your left-hand 
side? Wben you are sitting in your seat, name the boy.¢ 
and girls who are sit.ring on vour right. Who is standing- 
on 3ohn's right? On Iary's ]eft? Do vou ho]d your 
pencil in the right or the left hand when writing? Do 
you know any one who writes \vith his left hand? When 
vou are driving a team of horses, the horse on the right- 
hand side is called the "off" horse, and the one on the 
left-hand side the "nigh" horse. 
EAST, WEST, NORTI[, SORTI[ 
The directions east and u,est are readily learned in 
connection with the movements of the sun. If is popularly 
stated that the sun rises in the east and sers in the west. 



34 GEOGRAPHY 

Of course we know tbat this is hot strictly true, but we 
do n«»t need fo «onsidcr, at this stae, the -eographical 
ccuracy of the statement. The pupil may be told that 
he sun r]scs in the cast and sers in the west, and he may 
be dri]]ed upon these directions. 
In tea«hin thc directions lorth and south, the pupil 
mav be a.ked to stand af noon with hi. bat.k fo the sun, 
and h,ld that he is faein the north and that the south is 
direcflv behiud him. Ask him, while facing the north, to 
«xteud hoth arms sideways. Ia what direction is the 
right hand pointiu? The left hand? 
If possiblc, at this stage show the pupils a compass. 
From the kntwle,lge already acquired, they will be able 
I,, tell that the compass needle is pointing fo the north. 
Tell lhem tlmt in this part of the world the needle of a 
g,od compass always ptints fo the north. Give them prac- 
lice in lhe use of the compass. They may now be told 
lhat the four ¢]irections, north, south, east, and xvest, are 
«.alled the four chief, or cardinal, points of the compass. 
A.k a pupil fo walk northward, then eastward, then 
s,uthward, then westward. Af what end of the school- 
r«,«m is the teacher's desk.9 The door.9 In what direction 
d,cs the road run.9 The river flow.9 In wbat direction 
does the wind drive the smoke to-day, etc.? Vary the 
,lrill as mueh as possible. 
_Next, consider a place o the north-west. Draw from 
hc pupils that we may reach if (a) by going north and 
tben west, or (b) by going west and then north, or (c) 
hv -oiug in a straigt line toward it. Tell them that a 
.traizht line fo sueh a place would run in a north-west 
,]iret'tion. Show them the appropriateness of the naine 
Deal with north-east, south-east, and south-west in a 
similar wav. and fo}lw with the usual drill. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS: TIME 

35 

WINDWARD, LEEWARD 
Stand outside when the wind is blowing. Point your 
finger in the direction from which the wind blows. Point 
in the direction toward which the wind blows. The direc- 
tion front which it blows is said fo be u'indwar,l; and thc 
direction toward which it blows, lee«'ard. Watch the 
smoke from a chimney. Which is windward? Which 
is leeward? Why? When a kite is flying, is the rai! 
to windward or to leeward of it? Why? Can you run 
faster to windward or to leeward? Why? When a cold 
wind is blowing, which is warmer, the windward or 
the leeward side of the house? Why? When the winO 
is blowing from the west, what direction is leeward? 
Why? What is windward? If the wind is blowing to the 
south-east, what direction is windward? Why? Get your 
father fo make a weather-vane shaped like an arrow. Set 
it up. Does the arrow point to windward or to leeward? 
Why ? 
TIME 

DAY, NIGHT, ETC. 
Choose a sunny day for this le..on. What make., it so 
light to-day? Where is the sun now? Look. If you did 
hot look at it, how could vou tell that if is shinin.? 
(By the shadow it makes.} Where was the .un when vou 
came fo school? What rime of dav wa. it then? Where 
was vour shadow? Where was the sun in the middle of 
the dav? Where will it be when vou are goinghome? 
Where will your shadow be then? Which i. the shadv 
side of the school-house before nine o'c|ock? Whv? 
Which is [he shady side at four o'clock? Whv? Where 
does the sun go down? When does if o down? When 
he sun goes down we say that if sers, and the rime is 
called sunset. What do we call the dim light befor« if 



36 GEOGRAPHY 

gts quite dark? (Twilight) When do we say if is 
night? Wheu is it midnight? Where does the sun rise? 
When? What do we eall the rime in the early morning 
when it is just beginning to get light? (Daybreak or 
dawn) What naine do we give fo the early part of the 
day? (M«»rning) When is if evening? When is if 
««»n? What name is gin'en fo fhaf pari of fhe day 
between early morning and noon ? (Forenoon) Between 
noon and evening? (Afternoon) A.M. is a short way 
«,f writing f«»renoon; and P.M. of writing, afternoon. 
Io not teaeh the origin of these al»breviations at this 
stage. 
At what time of the year does if get dark very early in 
the evening? (In winter) Af what rime does if keep 
light until late in the evening? When does the sun rise 
on summer mornings? (Early) When on winter morn- 
ings? Which is longer, a summer day or a winter day? 

What is meant hy the following stanza: 
In winter I get up af night, 
And dress b" 'ellow candle-light. 
In summer quite the other way, 
I haxe to go to bed by day. 

MINUTE, IIOUR 
Let the eaoher. watch in hand, tell the pupil fo hold 
up his hand at a given signal and keep it up until another 
si.znal is given af the end of . minute interval of rime. 
Tell him that he had his hand up for one minute. Next 
ask him to trv the experiment without the final signal. 
The teaeher will rime him and tell him whether his rime 
interval is too long or too short. How many rimes tan a 
pupil walk back and forth across the room during a minute 



SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS: WEATHER 37 

of rime? In such ways as thesc the pupil should get a 
general notion of the length of rime in a minute interval. 
Praetise counting one, two, three, t'te., until y,_, tan count 
al;the rate of thirty eounts in a hall minute. 
When is sehool dismissed for dinner? (At twelve 
o'clock) When'is if called in for the afternoon's work? 
(Af one o'elock) ]Iow long a rime did this allow for 
dinner and play? (One hour) IIow many minutes are 
there in one hour? (,qixty minutes) Ih,w 1,,ng is the 
recess period? lIow many minutes are there in one hall 
of an hour? Iu one quarter of an hour? What is meant 
by a twenty-four hour day? 

WEATHER 

WET, DRY, COLD, ETC. 
These terres should be learned incidentally in connec- 
tion with the daily weather observations recommcndcd 
in Chapter IV. 
Illustrations: What kind of day was Saturday? 
was a wet dav. Why was it a wet day? What kind of 
day is this? Il is a dry day. What ruade the weather 
o-day dry? Was tbe rain on Sahrday a benefit fo u.? 
Why? Why is if warmer to-dav than it was on ,qaturday? 
The sun is shining to-day; on Saturday the sun could hOt 
be seen for rain-clouds. 

WINDS 
What is if that we breathe? Does air more? How 
do you know? Open a window on the sill of which some 
]ight pieces of paper hare been placed. What bappens fo 
the paper? What caused the paper fo move? Moisten 
your hand and hold if near the opening? What do you 
fce]? What objects outside are moved by the air? What 



38 GEOGRAPHY 

naine is given fo air in motion? Wind is air in motion. 
In how many ways can you tell that wind is blowing? 
Bv sight, by hearing, and by feeling. Give examples of 
each. 
D,,es the wind alwavs blow from the saine direction? 
What would vou call a wind blowing from the north, etc.? 
A wind is named from the direction from which if cornes. 
What is a west wind, etc.? From what direction is the 
wind blowing to-day? How can you tell? Towarà what 
direction does a weather-vane point? Watch a fla flying 
and tell the direction of the wind. Watch moving clouds. 
What makcs them more? 
What is a cold wind? A warm wind ? A gentle wind? 
A strong wind? A high wind? Why are north winds 
usually colder than south winds ? IIow does the direction 
«,f the wind affect the weather? Why? What is a calm? 
A breeze ? A gale? Do winds ever cause daraage? Give 
instances of damage that you have known winds fo do. 
Di.cuss the destructive power of wind in blowing clown 
buildings, trees, crops, fruit, etc. 
CLOçDS, IOGS 
On frosty winter mornings, what do vou see comin 
from your mouth when you breathe? This "breath" is 
really a little c|oud. When the tea-kettle is boi|in, what 
do vou sometimes see coming from the spout? This 
"" steam" is a little cloud. The steam that you see escap- 
ing from a steam-boiler is also a cloud. The steam, or 
vapour, seen rising sometimes from a river or |ake or low 
ground is a cloud too. The clouds away np in the air are 
like these smaller ones only they are very. verv much 
larger. 
"y cannot we see the sun to-day ? Is the sun shin- 
ing now? If an air-man in his flying machine went up, 



SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS: RAIN 

39 

up, up, what kind of day would he find on the other side 
of the clouds ? Why do you think so ? 
How high up are the clouds? Sometimes they corne 
right down and rcst upon the earth. What do we call such 
a cloud? We call if a fog or mist. Did you e'er wa/k 
through a cloud fo school? When air-mcn in their flying 
machine. go through a cloud, if mu.t be much like riding 
along the road on a foggy morning in an automobile. 
('louds more across the sky and are of many hapcs 
and colours. Why are the clouds solnetimes so very, vcry 
beautiful af sunset? What kind of clouds indicates that 
a rain storm is approaching? What someimes fall from 
these thick, black clouds? Rain and hail. In very cold 
weather what may fall from them ? 

The rain is falling to-day. Where does if fall from? 
What are some of the signs of an approaching tain ? From 
'hat direction did to-day's rain-c]ou«ls corne? Yesfer«]ay 
was a warm, dry day. W-hat change of weather bas been 
caused by to-day's rain? From what direction is the wind 
hlowing? What is the effect of the wind upon the falling 
rain? Why is the ground more tiresome fo walk upon 
than if was yeserday? Wha/ becomes of the rain thaf, 
falls upon the ground? Why is there more water in the 
wel]s after a very heavy rainfall? Of what benefit is rain 
fo the grass and fo the growing crops? Why? If all the 
rain-water does hot soak into the ground, what bccomes 
of the surplus? Why is the water in streams and ditches 
so muddy-looking after a rainfall? Taste rain-water. 
How does ifs faste differ from that of well-water? Mix a 
little soap in rain-water and in well-water. What diffcr- 
ence do you see? Which will make the better water for 
4 



40 GEOGRAPHY 

washing purposes? Why do we say rain-water is "soft" 
water ? 
What is a rainbow? What different colours do you 
.cee in if? Try fo makc a drawinff of if with coloured 
,'rayons. What causes the rainbow? (The sun shining 
through falling rain) In what part of the sky is if seen 
in the evening? In the morlfing? 
What little creatures crawl out of the -q'ound when if 
rains? Wateh a robin hunting for earthworms. 
Why is if dangerous fo g.et one's elothes or feet wet? 
What shouhl vou do in such a case, in order to make sure 
that your health does hot surfer? 
TIUNDER Ah'D 
What do you s«»m«,tim«,s hear when rain-clouds are 
pa.sing? q'hunder. What do )'ou sometimes see? 
Lightning. Whieh of these two things is the more dan- 
gerous? Why will the thunder not harm us? If is noth- 
ing but sound. What are the two kinds of lightning? 
('hain- and sheet-lightning. Ilow tan ),ou te]l one from 
the other? Which is t|le kind that sometimes causes 
damage? What damage have you seen donc by lightning? 
The "" sheet lightning" is quite harmless. How can you 
tell when he ligtning is hot near? When if is near? 
The doser together the lightning flash and the thunder 
]»cal are, the nearer and the more dangerous the lightning 
is. 'Whv is if hot safe fo stand under a tree during a 
flmnder-sorm? We would be much safer out in the 
open. Li'htning-rods are somefimes put on a building 
fo prevent the lightning striking if. 
DEW 
What is dew? ]loisture on grass, etc. Whên does if 
'" fall"? During thê evêning and night. Watch for dew 



SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS: THE SUN 41 

on cloudy nights. Do you find any? On what kind of 
night, calm or windy, does dew form? When there is 
little or no wind. Upon what does dew form? Upon 
grass, stones, etc., hot usually upon boards or dusty 
roads. When does the dew disappear? What causes if to 
disappear? The sun. Of what benefit is dew? If the 
temperature is below the freezing-point, what happens to 
dew? What naine is given to frozen dew? It is some- 
rimes called hard, or "black ", frost. White, or hoar-frost, 
is not frozen dew. In what seasons do we find white 
frost? In spring and autumn and sonletimes in early 
and late summer. What damage is a hard frost likely fo 
cause in late spring? In early autumn? 

ICE 
What is ice? FIow would vou prove that ice i frozen 
water? Try these experiments: (a) Fill a glass bottle 
with water, cork if, and leave if out-of-doors on a frosty 
night. (b) Partly fill a tin vessel with water and let if 
freeze soli& What do vou learn from these experiments? 
That water expands when changcd into ice. What damage 
have you seen done by water freezin into ice? Water- 
pipes broken, etc. Ilow does ice add fo vour winter's 
enjoyment? What gaines are played on ice? Of what 
use is ice in .ummer rime? Explain how ice ]s kept 
through the h,t weather. ]-I.w ean vou make ice colder 
than if is? By breaking it up and mixing sait with 
How is ice-cream ruade ? What is a refrigerator ? 

THE SUN 

This lesson will give an opportunity to review previous 
lessons on a.sociated topics, sueh as Dav and Night. etc. 
As the class will return to this subject in Senior Form 



12 GEOGRAPHY 

III, ail that is here required is to emphasize a few genera] 
notions hot yet referred to. Proceed as follows: 
What two benefits do we get from the sun? Heat and 
light. Is the weather equally hot ail day? Af what rime 
of day is the sun hottest? At noon. Why? Because it 
is more nearly overhead af noon. When does if give us 
least heat? Place a screen between yourself and the hot 
store. Why does the screen make you feel the heat less? 
Apply this fo expla.in why cloudy days are hot so ]lot as 
sunny days. 
When is the shortest day of the year? A few days 
before Christmas. When is the longest day? About a 
week belote the schools close for the summer holidays. 
:Ilow long does the sun shine then? How much daylight 
is there after four o'clock in summer? :In winter? 
Look af the sun through a smoked glass. W-hat shapc 
is if? How large is if? 5Iore than a million rimes as 
large as the earth. Why then does it look so small? Be- 
causeit issofar away. Howfar awayisit? Itissofar 
away that, if you wcrc fo start now on a journey fo it on a 
fast express train that never stops, you would die of old 
age belote you would get half-way there ; but you would 
reach the moon in about six months. 

THE MOON 

The pupils of Forms I and II should be required 
fo observe the moon front night to night under the 
teacher's guidance, beginning with the new moon. This 
guidance nay take the form of simple questions or sug- 
gestions given from day fo day af school. Since the class 
will return to this subject in the Senior Form III, if is 
obvious that only such genera] introductorv observations 
as are of special interest should be attempted at this stage. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS: THE MOON 43 

At the end of a month the pupils should be able to answer 
intelligently such questions as are round below. 
What is.the shape of the moon when first seen? It is 
crescent-shaped. How many horns has it? Make a draw- 
ing of it on the black-board. What naine is given toit? 
"*New moon." Why is it called a " new moon "? Becau»e 
it may be considered a " baby moon". In what part of 
the sky is it first seen? In the western sky. When is 
it first seen? Soon after sunset. What becomcs of 
it? It, too, soon sets in the west. Watch it for a few 
nights. at change is taking place in its appearance? 
Itis gradually getting larger. What change is taking 
place in ifs location? It is seen more to the east each 
night. What shape ]las it in about six days? Itis like a 
hall circle. Make a drawing of if. It is now said tobe in 
ifs "first quarter'. How big does the moon become? It 
becomes a full circle. What do we call if then ? A " full 
moon'. ,Make a drawing of if. Hoxr long a rime is if 
since if was a new moon? Nearly two weeks. What do 
you sec on the face of the full moon? Dark markings. 
Many people say that this is "the man in the moon » 
Xobody lires on the moon so, of course, it cannot he a 
man. Where does the full moon rise? In the east. 
When? Just after the sun bas gone clown. In what 
direction does the moon more across the sky? From east 
fo west just like the sun. Watch the moon for some davs 
after if has hecome full. What change in appearance do 
vou notice? If is getting smaller. If becomes like a half 
circle once more, and we say if is then in ifs "third 
quarter'. When does the third-quarter moon fise? Quite 
laie af niht. Does the moon rise af the saine rime each 
night? lgo, if is nearly an hour later each night. YIow 
long are we without any moon? About a week, and then 



44 GEOGRAPIIY 

another new moon is seen. How long a time is there 
between two full moons? Nearly a month. Of what use 
is the moon fo us? 
Final the "Big Dipper" stars and the North Star, 
when the sky is clear. Of what use is the North Star fo 
us? Wben we see if we know that we are looking straight 
north. When you are looking at this star, where is south? 
East? West? The North Star is larger tlmn the sun, 
but if is so very much farther away that if looks very 
much smaller. 
SEASONS 
TtlE AUTUIN 
Naine the autumn months. Why is this season called 
the " fall" of the year ? What chaage is gradually taking 
place in the autumn days as to their length ? As fo their 
temperature? Noie thc beaut]fully coloured leaves and 
how they brighten up the wbole countryside. Why do 
leaves fall? The tree has no further use for them. What 
tree. keep their leaves during winter? What preparation 
do the an]mals of the neighb,»ur|mod make in the autunm 
f,r tbe]r winter home? For the]r wintcr's food? What 
elmnge takes place in their fur coats? Why do many birds 
tir away fo the south in the autumn? When do hey 
retura? Describe the autumn work of the fariner in the 
harve.t]ng of his corn, potato, fruit, and root-crops; in 
iriiaring food and shelter f«r his lire stock 
ing winter; and in preparing bis fields for thc next year's 
crop.. What preparation must boys and girls make? 
'hat is a fall fa]r? A school fair? Tell what you 
see at these fairs. 



LAND AND WATER FORMS 

45 

HILLS AND STREAMS 

Il II.L. 
Look out over the couutryside. What is its surface 
like? It is uneven or rolling. Point out the high places. 
What are thcse high places called? They are hills. What 
is the road betweên here an',l y.ur home like? Why is it 
an up-and-down road? When is a road said to be level? 
Over what hills did you pass on your way fo school? What 
do we call the sloping side of a hill? If is called ifs 
dope. What is meaut hy "up grade" and "dC,Wl 
grade"? Over what part of the road do you find the 
walking easiest? Walking is easiest when the road is 
down grade. Why? Where do the horses flnd it hardest 
te, haul a load? Why? What is the highest part of the 
hill called? If is the top, or summif. What is the land 
at the bottom of the hill callêd? If is ifs foot, or base. 
Iraw a hill on the hlack-board. Mark ifs top. ifs sl,_,pe, 
and ifs base. Ilow is a hill road sometimes built iu order 
fo make if more easy fo travel over? Tbe earth is taken 
from the road af the top of the hill and is used f.r grading 
up af the bottom. Ilow does this improve the road? It 
will hot be so steep. Where is there a hill lu the neigh- 
bourhood eut down in this way? On your saud-table make 
a hill and show how such a road may be ruade. 
During a heavy rainfall or when ShOW melt. on a bill- 
side, which way does the water flow? Wlly do rivers or 
brooks flow along between hills? Vqy is it pleasaut fo 
lire upon the top of a hill in summer ? If is cooler. Why? 
What difference would there be in winter? Why? Which 
is warmer, the south slope of a hill or the »ortb sl,_,pe? 
Why? Which is easier fo work, a hilly farm or a farm 
on level ground? Why? 



46 GEOGRAPHY 

A DITCH 
(NoTE.--A ditch with runntng water is a river in miniature, 
and the class, by an observattonal study of it, may get much 
knowledge of rivers and the|r work.) 
Which is botter, a wct or a dry road? Why is the 
dry re»ad botter? What can road-makers do fo make the 
roa,1 ,lry up quickly after a heavy rainfall ? Are ditches 
usua]lv ma,le on one side only or on both sides of the 
road? Why on both sides? When a heavy tain fa]ls 
upon a dusty road what becomes of the dust? What proof 
bave you that some of if was carried into the ditch? 
Look carefully. Take a glass of mud-coloured water from 
the ditch and let it stand for a day or so. What is found 
in the bottom of the glass? Where did this mud corne 
from? What does the ditch do with tle mud that makes 
the water so dirty, when therc is no current? When there 
is a current? IIow can you tell that there is a current? 
Throw some light bits of wood upon the water. In what 
direction docs the water fiow? Why does if flow in that 
direction? Running water shows which way the land 
.qlopes. Does the water fiow uniformly af the saine rate? 
Whv not? Look for rapids and waterfalls. Is the bank 
wearing away in places? What is doing this? What 
hee«mes of the water that is flowing down the diteh? 
As soon as a ditch dries up, look for he mud that was in 
the watcr. Where do you find it? Will this mud fill up 
the ditch in time? Why do you think so? What repair 
will the ditch need thon? Will the road need repair too? 
Whv ? 
At the close of these ob.ervation., whieh will require 
eonsidt, ralde ime, require the pupils, u.in.g the sand- 
table f,,r illustration when po.sil»le, to tell orally the sorv 
of a diteh--how if was ruade, how it drains the road gf 



ACTI'ITIES OF THE HOME 

47 

both water and mud, how this improves the rond for a 
time, how the ditch gradually fills up, and how both rond 
and ditch wil[ in time lmed repair, the rond by being 
graded up, and t]le ditc}l by being c}eaned out." 

ACTIVITIES OF' THE HOME 
:BREAD, FLOt:n. WIIL'AT 
Of what is bread madc? IIow is fiour ruade inlo 
dough? What is put into the dough fo make it " riso"? 
Tell how it is ruade into loaves and cookol. 
Of what is flour ruade? Where is wheat ruade into 
fiour? What else besides flour is obtained from the 
w/mat? Take your knife and pick off t/le rhin, skin-like 
coat of a grain of wheat. It is this outer part that bc- 
cornes the bran. Of what u.e is bran? Vfhat part of the 
grain becomes the white flour? Ilow is wheat ruade int« 
flour af the mill? By crushing if between iron roller.. 
From whom does the railler buy wheat ? Where does 
t|e fariner obtain it? Naine two kinds of wheat. Why 
is one kind ea]led "spring" whcat and the other ]ind 
'" fal]" wheat? What kind is grown at your h,,me? Tell 
how the fariner prepares the fiehl béfore sowing the seed 
wheat. Tell how he sows thc wheat. Whcn is the wheat 
readv fo be harvested? Tell bricfly how he harvests and 
thrashes the wheat. 
Review: Tell a "story" about each ofthe following: 
(a) How the fariner ffrows wheat, (b) how the railler 
nmkes fiour, and (c) how the bakcr makes brcad. 

TIIE FARM- 
Workers on fhe farm are callcd farmers. The land 
that the fariner owns or works is ]li. farln, and if is 
separated from adjoiving farms l,y line fences. What are 



4 8 GEOGRAPHY 

line fences? Farms are usually dividcd into fields of 
arious sizes. What crops are grown in these fields? 
What is meant by a "grain crop"? A "hoe crop"? 
What «r«,ws in a meadowç For what is a pasture fie]d 
,_ • 
n.ed? Of what use is the bush? The products of the 
farm are grain, hay, roots, po|atoes, fruit, lire stock, 
butter, e..««, etc'. T whom does the fariner sell these 
lhings ? 
In each of the following cases, which farm s likely to 
[»e w«»r[h more money: 
() [)ne near a market-townor one far away? Why? 
(b) ç)ne near a railwa," station or one far away? Why? 
(«) ()ne near a school or one far away? Why? 
(d) [-)e infested with weeds or one that is clean? Why? 
te) One with good roads near by or one with bad roads? 
Why? 
THE STORE 
Locate t]le nearest store. T]le man who keeps the 
store is ca]led a store-keeper or merchant, and his he]per a 
«|erk. Naine d]fferent kinds of stores. What is a grocery 
store? A dry goods store? A drug store? A hardware 
store? A |)ook store? A flour and feed store? A 
" general " store is ont that sel]s nearly everything that is 
needed, such as grocerics, dry good., boots and shoes, etc. 
W|lv are mo.t.country and village stores usua]]y zeneral 
.t.res? Why do vonr parents buv groceres, dry goods, 
hardware, etc.? These thinz. are hot produced at home. 
What things do farmers sell or exchange af the store? 
Why do they do this? More of these things are produced 
at home than are needed. What is meant by buying 
"for cash "? Bv buying '" on (.redit"? By taking goods 
" in trade "? 



THE RAILWAY 49 

CHEESE FACTORY 
From what is cheese ruade? What is the place called 
in which cheese is ruade? From wlmm is the milk 
obtained? IIow is if carried from the farm fo the fac- 
tory? Why is it weighed at the factory? What 
things are ruade from the milk? Whey and curd. What 
is done with the whey It is fed fo the pigs. What 
done with the curd? It is presed in m,,uh] until if 
becomes cheese. IIow old should the cheese be bef«»re it 
good to eat? It slmuhl be af h.at six wecks or two 
months old, but if it is older than this it will make still 
beter food. 
TIIE RAILWAY 
lat is the naine of the nearest railwav Through 
what near-by places docs it run ? The place where trains 
stop fo take passengers or freight on or off is called the 
station. What is meant by freight? Xame different kinds 
of freight. What is the naine of the nearest station? 
What is a railway train? Describe a passenger coach, a 
freight car. the engine, and the use of each. What are the 
duties of the engineer, the fireman, the brakesman, the 
conductor? The man who bas charge of the station 
calle«] the station agent. Ho sends messages to othcr 
stations by telegraph or bv telephone. What is the mean- 
ing of the "ticking" heard in a te[e.graph office? 
A railway operated by electrieity is called a trolley 
line, and the cars, electric or trolley cars. In cities and 
towns they are usually called street-cars. What is the use 
of the overhead wire? The trt»lley pole? The man 
runs the car is called the motormaa. 



CHAPTER VI 

FOIM II 

DETAILS OF TIRE COURSE 

PECOIIIENDATIONS TO TEA('IIERS 

To COMPLETE the ('ourse in Geography for Form II will 
require from one year fo one and one-half years, depending 
upon the abi]ity of tbe class. 
It is hot required that tbe topics should be taught in 
tbe order outlined below. Any logical order of topics mav 
I,e taken, provided that tbe class bas had the necessary 
prcliminary preparation for the understanding of the 
subject-matter. 
A record should be kept of all lessons taught, fo preven 
unnecessary repetitions or omissions. 
In rural schools if will be found advantageous fo com- 
bine classes whenever possible. For examp]e, the Senior 
(irade of Form I may be combined with Form II for 
much of tbe subject-matter included in the sections num- 
I,ered 4. 6, 9. and lo. If pupils of the Junior Grade of 
Form III are round defcetive in the subjeet-matter of 
Form II, they may final if profitable fo join the latter for 
reviews. 
That the " Suggestions for Lessons" in this Grade are 
well within tbe comprebension of ordinary Form II pupils 
has been demonstrated by eareful tests ruade in the schoof 
room by competent teachers. Tbe observation method 
makes the work very interesting and practical, and the 
pupils find little difficulty in understanding facts and 
relationships which, if taught by the o]d non-observation 
methods, would be for the most part bazy and theoretical. 
50 



LAND AND WATER FORMS 51 

1. LAND AND WATER FORMS 
(1) The ideas obtained from observations of local 
hills, valleys, and plains extended to include ideas of 
mountain, range, volcano, watershed or divide, plateau, 
pass, pronmntory. 
(2} The further study of a local stream as tb oriffin. 
direction, size, work (drainage, erosion, transportati«n), 
fo develop such terres as river, tributary, source, channel, 
current, mouth, estuary, delta. Emphasize the erosive 
power of rivers in cutting down the vallcys through 
which they flou', and their carrying power in transportin 
soils to lower levels. 
The river basin, its watershed, its source of water- 
supply (rain and snow), ifs sprinz., ,lrains, and swamps, 
and its system of river and branches. 
(3) General notions of continent, ocean, sea, strait, 
gulf, bay, lake, canal, island, cape, peninsula, isthmus. 
A physical geozraphy chart of these type forms will be 
found verv helpful. Pictures are also very effective in this 
connection. 
(4) lepre.¢entation bv the pupils of the above types of 
land and water forms by modelling in sand or clay and 
bv drawing. Sand-tables should be used very sparingly 
bv the teacher during the teaching process, but tbe pupils 
mav afterwards use them freely, as a means of expressing 
uotions that have been tauht to them. 
For hints on teachingthe following topics, sec " SuZ- 
gestions for Les.ons", Chapter VII: M,untains; a river; 
river basin; the oeean; shore forms. 

2. THE lVEATHER AND THE SEASONS 
(1) Winds: general notions of their cause, direction, 
force, and uses. 



52 GEOGRAPHY 

(¢) Nature and origin of c]ouds, fogs, .dew, frost, rain, 
SHOW, bail, etc. 
(3) The seasons: changes, eharaeteristies, general 
I:;tuses. 
(t) Simple weathe records. 
For hints on teaching the following, see "Sug- 
gestions for Lcssons", Chal»ter VII: Winds; rain; the 
seasons; variation in the length of day and night. 

3. OUTLINE STUDY OF THE EARTH AS A WHOLE 
(1) Thc carth: form, sizc, surfa(.c. 
(?) The («mtinents and oceans and tbeir relative posi- 
tions. Use the globe af first, the map of the world after- 
wards. ]h» hot use tbc Mcr(.at-r map at this stage, s it 
mav .,.,rive wrong impressions of distance and areas. 
For bints on tcaching " The Earth as a Globe", sec 
Chapter VIL 
4. LOCAL GEOGRAPHY 
Mu('h ]ce.al Zogaphy bas a]rêady been taken in pre-' 
cedin,,,, portions of the (_'ourse. In addition the following 
mv be taken: 
(l) Xames and locaqians of particular local streams, 
]akes, bil]s, roads, capes, i.Iands, etc. 
(} "['ownship and c, mntv .,,zeography, with the prin- 
cipal t,:wns, villages, highways, etc. 
For hints on teachiug " The Township", sec Chapter 
VIL 
5. MAP DRAWING 
The fol]owing order is suggested for the development 
of plans and maps: 
(1) Simple objccts in the school-room, for examp]e. 
the teacher's desk or table. 



COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY 53 

(2) The school-room, showing location of store, 
teacher's desk, door, etc. 
(3) The school grounds. 
(4) Some neighbouring farm. 
For variety, models in sand or clay may be malle of 
some particu]ar farnl, the se]mol section, or the to,'nship, 
and then plans or maps may be nmde of these models. 
For hints on teaching lnaps, see Çhapter VI I. 

6. COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY 

(1) I,ocal marketing: grain, lire stock, fruit, butter, 
cheese, milk, eggs, and other farm products; wood, pulp- 
wood, fish, etc. 
(2) Local industries and their products: ]umber, 
cheese, pull), paper, furniture, wo«dlen good.¢, clothing, 
flour and meal, leather, boots and shoes, cured meats, 
ilnplcments, machinery, brick, cernent, lime, etc. 
(3) Itaw material obtained in the l«,cality: building 
stone, ]imestone, nmrl, marble, tituber, pulpwood, tan bark, 
hides, iron ore, etc. 
(4) I)islribution: local mcans of transporlation: 
roads, railways, water-ways; local collecting and distri- 
buting centres, such as implcment agencies, elevators, etc. 

7. PLACES OF GEOGRAPHICAL INTEREST 
IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD 
and dunes, shores worn by waves, ravines cut by 
running water, gravel-pits showing lavers of gravel and 
sand, deposits of bouldcr stones, quarries, crumpled or 
tilted rock layer.% glacial-marked rocks, "pot-holes", 
streams flowing from springs, meandcring strcams in 
plains, etc. 



54 GEOGRAPHY 

8. PLACES OF HISTORICAL INTEREST 
IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD 
Location of places of historical intere.t. Many of 
thcse are on or ncar thc United States boundary, Farti- 
cularly along thc St. Lawrence River, thc north shores of 
Lake Ontario. the Niagara River, and the Detroit River. 
In additi(,n lo thcs', thcre are lndian rcservcs, ohl Indian 
camping and burial grounds, old buildings or places asso- 
(.iated with early pioneer days, birthplaees of famous men, 
cie. 
9. THE PEOPLE OF THE LOCALITY AND 
TIiEIR NATIONALITIES 
Canadians, ].:lglish, Irish, Scotch, Wclsh, Americans, 
French, Germans, Italians, Chinese, etc., as the case may 
be. General noti«,ns of the location of the countries from 
which these pcople came. 

10. CHILD LIFE IN OTHER LANDS 
St«)rie., illustrated hy pictures, of child lire in other 
«mmtries. partieularly in those countries whose conditions 
and cu.ttm. are widel,," different from ours. Examphs: 
Eskimo, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Hindu, Turk, Negro, 
etc. 
Chihlrcn nf publie school age are likely to he mueh 
more interested in the lires and aetivities of other ehil- 
dren than in those of MuRs. Hence such topies as the 
fo]lowing should make appropriate nmterial for elass 
stories : 
The appearance of the chi]dren, their games, toys, 
pef.% c]ofhing, what they eaf, what thev study at school, 
what fheir bornes are like, occupations of Ihe people, how 
thev travel, climate and products of the country, thc 
animal and bir«l ]ife. stran.e sizhfs fo be sccn. eic. 



CI[APTER VI[ 

Fç)R[ I[ 

SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS 

ZIOUNTAINS 
THAT is a mountain? (Show a picture.) If is a very 
high bill. Very few hills in Ontario are high enou.gh fo be 
called mountains. How high must a bill be before if may 
be called a mountain ? There is no fixed fuie for using the 
terre mountain. What is cal]ed a mountain in one part of 
the country would simply be callcd a hill in another. For 
cxample, in some localities a hill about 5o0 feet high is 
called a mountain ; in other localities, it would need fo be 
over 1,0oo feet high to be considered as such. When we 
speak of the height of a mountain we mean ifs ecvation 
above the level of the sea. Explain. Some mountains are 
so low and their s]opes are so gentle tbat one may climb to 
their tops without much trouble. ç)thers are so high and 
their sides are so steep that if is difficult and often im- 
possible fo reach their tops. The height of the highest 
mountain in the world is about rive and one-half mlles. 
Their tops may rise far al)ove the clouds and are often 
hidden by them. 
Examine as many pictures of mountains as you can 
find. What shape is the top of a mountain ? If bas many 
shapessometimes rounded, but often irregu]ar. The top 
of a mountain that is much higher than the country about 
it is called a peak. What is the colour of the hi£h moun- 
tain top _e _ pictures? Why are they white? They 
55 



56 GEOGRAPHY 

are covered with snow and ice. About two miles above us 
the atmosphere is so cold that ShOW will not melt. This 
is why very high mountain tops are always buried in snow 
and ice. A large mass of tbis ShOW and ice sometimes 
I,ecomcs loosened and slides down the mountain side caus- 
ing great damage. This is called an avalanche. 
iqat naine is given fo a row of mountains? These 
ranges, or chains, are sometimes hundreds of toiles in 
length. Why docs such a mountair range make a good 
watershed, or divide ? What becomes of tbe rain that falls 
upon a mountain range? Which side of the range will 
have the greater rainfall, the windward or the leeward 
side? Why? In what ways does a mountain range hin- 
der trade and travel? Where is the best place for cross- 
ing a mountain range? What name is given to such a 
crossing place? It is called a pass. Why was this naine 
given to it? Why do railways always cross mountains 
through these pas.es? 
Of what material. are mountains composed? Rock 
when exposed fo the weather gradually crumbles away. 
What naine is given fo powdered rock? What becornes 
of the soil that is thus formed? 3lost of it is washed 
away and leaves the rocks bare; part of it covers the sides 
of the mountain farther down. This makes it possible for 
forests fo grow on mountain sides. Do you sec tlaese 
forests in the pictures? Why can hot trees grow on very 
high mountain tops? 
3letals, such as gold, silver, iron, etc., are usually round 
in rocks. Why are these metals so often round in moun- 
tainous countries? Why do fewer people lire in moun- 
tainous countries than in lowland countries? ttow do 
mountaineers make their living? Do they cultivate trie 
land much ? %y not? They hunt, pasture sheep, work 



SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS: RIVER 57 

in mines, etc. What name is given to men who hunt ? " 
1o those wbo eare for sheep? To those wbo work in 
mines? Naine s»me wild animals that lie in tbe moun- 
tains. Why do many pe-pie g,: fo the mountains for 
their health? Give reasons why most peop]e find it nmrc 
pleasant as well as more profitable to live in the valless 
rather than up among the mountains? 
Make blaek-board sketches and san,| and clay mode|s 
of mountain, mountain range, pass, and valleys. Use 
cbalk dust fo illustrate the snow-capped peaks. 

A RIVER 
Make an examination of a brook near tbe school. 
Where does the water corne from? I: there a spring, or 
a swamp, or a tile-drain in the neighbourhood? If so 
examine if carefullv fo find out what contribution, if any, 
it makes fo the water-supply of the brook. In what direc- 
tion is the brook flowing? Why does it flow in this direc- 
tion? What is meant bv the source of the brook? What 
is its mouth ? What evidence can you find that the brook 
is growing larger as it flows alon? What name is given 
to the smaller streams that flow into if? What is the 
name ffiven fo the ]and bordering each side of the brook ? 
Which is the right bank? The left bank? The bed, or 
channel, of he hrook is the |and betwccn the banks and 
over which the water flows. Whv does a larger stream dig 
out a deeper channel for it.elf than a smaller stream does ? 
The larger stream i. stronger and can do more work. 
Is the current flowing af a uniform l:ate of speed? 
Test by throwing pieces of wood or leaves upon the water. 
Whv is the flow faster in some places than in others? 
What kind of bottom bas the brook where the current is 
slow? Whv is if covered with mud or fine sand? In 



58 GEOGRAPHY 

what parts of the stream is the bottom covered with coarse 
gravel or st,nes? Account for this. Why is the water 
mu,]dy after a heavy rainfall? Where did the mud corne 
ff.m? Why does it settle to the bottom where the cur- 
rent is slow rather than where if is swifter? If there is 
a p, md in the neighbourhood, compare the colour of the 
xater fl,win¢ into it after a rainfa]l with that of the 
water fl«,win¢ ovcr the data. What becomes of much of 
lhe mud that is carried into the pond? If this were fo 
cntime for many, many years, what would probably he 
the fate ¢f the pond? Show bow swamps may be formcd 
hy natura] p«nds tïlling up with soil. 
When thc brook bends, what part of the current bas 
the nmst speed? Test fo find out. What is the effect of 
this upon the bank? Why is it being worn away? What 
kind of banks are worn away more rapidly, grassy banks 
«r banks that are bare? Why? Find places where trees 
or bushes help to protèct the banks. How do they do 
this? Explain why the brook tends to beeome more wind- 
ing as the banks are worn away by the bending current. 
Con.¢truct a paddle-wheel. Hold the wleel so that 
the ends of the padd]es are in the flowin water. What 
makes the wheel turn? What useful work can moving 
water do? IIow? Why are dams built across streams? 
Note that manv mills, factories, and electric power plants 
are operated bv fa]]in water. Mention other wavs in 
whicb streams are usefu] fo man. Tbey drain the country 
-f surplus water, supply water for man and beast, irrigate 
fhe ]and, furn|sh food tïsb and fur-bearin animais, and, 
if large enough, forma water-way for ships. By picturc 
and description appeal fo the pupil's imagination, in order 
that he may acquire definite notions of the great rivers af 
a distance. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS: RIVER BASIN 59 

If is o the greatest importane that the pupils should 
bave a definie notion of river ban. This may be 
obiained by means o a ew sirap]e experiments and 
observations» followed b the stud o a local slream. 
Place ail empty basial or pan «mt-of-do.rs durinff a 
rainfall, and note: 
(a) That the water afterward found in the basin was 
supplied by the rain--there was no other source of supp]y. 
(b) That the only rain-water that entered the ba.in 
ïell within the limits of ifs rira. 
Have the pupils observe the roof of the school-house 
during a rainfall. By means of questions, guide their 
observations until the following ïacts are establisbeà: 
(a) That the ridge or watersbed of the roof separates 
its two slopes and thus determines the direction in whi«.h 
the rain-water must flow. 
(b) That af tbe foot of tbe sloping roof there i. a 
drain (caves trough) fo carry away the water. 
(c) That the water flows from the higher end fo the 
1,wer end of this drain trough. 
Next, the pupils should, if possible, ob.erve a small, 
neighbouring stream whose basin is limited and theref,»re 
suitable for study. After they have carefully observed 
the stream and ifs slopes, help them fo discover and fo 
trace the watershed, or divide. Tell them that the laud 
inclosed within this watershed and drained l,v the stream 
is called its basin. Refer fo the experiment of the pan or 
basin fo bring out the two points of resemhlance between 
the two basins with respect fo the rainfall. Then empha- 
size the drainage idea by referring fo the condi/i«ms 
observed in connection with the school-house roof and bv 



60 GEOGRAPHY 

slJowing tlJat somewhat similar conditions exist in the 
basin of the stream. 
WlJere does the stream get ifs supply of water? Why 
docs tbe stream flow a]og so steadi]y day after day? The 
cx[,]aJmlion of tbese phenomena is somewhat dilïïeu]t fo 
mJdcrstaJd af t]Jis stage. Observatious show tbat the 
s,mr,.,:s of water-supp]y are swamps, springs, and drains. 
These are fed by the rain and the ShOW that fall within 
thc limits of the basin. Fill a large sponge witll water 
to saturation and place it upon a slanting board. Water 
continues fo fl,»w from if for some rime. This illustra- 
tion will help the pupils fo understand how swamps, 
springs, and drains provide a continuous water-supply 
even whe if is hot raining. A swamp is 'ery much like 
a ]Juge sponge fi]]ed with water. 
These observations must be supplemented by verbal 
descriplions, pictures, b]ack-board sketcbes, sand-table 
work, etc., mJtil the essentia] features common fo river 
],asin.q are understood ]Jy the pupi]s. 
The sand-tal,le exercise may be earried on by the pupils 
as follows: Cover the surface of the sand-table with white 
l,al,er aJd spread a qtmntity of slightly moi.t sand over 
it. Arran.ge the sand fo represent the river basin with 
ifs watershe«]. Trace the courses of the brook and ifs 
tribttaries. Tbe whitc paper showing through the sand 
wi]l sl,«,w these courses very p]aifly. 
T]Je essentia] features referred fo above may be sum- 
marizeO as fo|]ows: 
(a) The river basin is contaied within a watershed, 
or divide, which separates if from neighbouring basins. 
(b) T]Je river «]tains the whole tract of country em- 
bra'e] wit]JiJJ t]Je basin. 



SUGGESTIONSFOR LESSONS: OCEAN 61 

(c) An extensive river basin may have as many smaller 
basins within it as the river has branch streams. 
(d) The land surface of the river basin slopes down 
fo the river from both sides. The river flows along be- 
tween slopes to ifs ourlet, or mouth, which is at the lower 
part of the basin. 
(e) The river has its source in springs, swamps, etc. 
These receive their water-supply wholly from the rain 
and snow that fall within the limits of the basin. 

THE OCEAN 
What becomes of all the water that rivers are carrying 
away? If you cou]d float along upon the river in a 
little boat for days and days, you would finally reach the 
ocean. Let us learn a few interesting things about it. 
Examine a picture of the ocean as it appears from the 
shore. Tell what you see. What colour is the water? 
]t is a greenish-blue, but when there are clouds over if, 
it looks dark and gloomy. Find a picture of the ocean 
in a storm. What do you see? What happens fo the 
waves when they strike the shore ? Why is it dangerous for 
ships fo be near the shore when a storm is raging? How 
are sailors warned of their danger in the darkness of 
night? What are harbours? Of what use are they? 
How large is the ocean? If is thousands of toiles 
long and in places thousands of toiles wide. Many men 
bave actually sailed on if all the way around the world. 
How deep is the ocean? Most parts of it near the land 
are shallow, but far out from shore if is in many places 
two toiles deep, and in some places four or rive toiles 
deep. 
As there are so very many rivers flowing into the ocean, 
whv does if not fill up and overflow ifs banks? If can- 



62 GEOGRAPHY 

hot do this because most of the rain-drops that fall from 
the clouds in all parts of the world corne from the ocean. 
You will learn about tbis in another lesson. 
|s the water of the ocean fresh or salt? How wou|d 
yuu m..uunt for the ocean being salt? Nearly all soils 
and rocks contain salt of different kinds. ,Some of if 
zets into the rivers aud is carried away to the oeean. To 
h.arn bow the water of the oeean beeame salt, try the 
f,,ll«,wing experiment: Fill a saucer with water in which 
some salt las been dissolved. TCte the water. Set the 
saucer wberê if will be exposed to the outside air for a 
day or wo when the weather is warm. What beeame of 
the water? Did tire salt disappear too? What proof bave 
you that it did «,t? The water in the ocean is mueh 
]ike the water in the saucer in one respee. Great quanti- 
ies of if disappear into the air fo help fo form elouds 
and raimdrops. The salt that the rivers earriec] fo file 
ocean is left tlere, making ils water salty. Indeed, if 
is so sali that no one would think of drinking it even if 
he were dying of thirst. 
Wby do some people go to the sea-shore in summer 
rime? ]Iow do the people af these summer resorts pass 
the rime? They walk upon the sandy beaeh, breathe 
ïresh air, and bathe in the cool, sait water. 

SIIORE FORMS 
'hat naine is given fo the ]an(] borc]ering on a pond 
or lake or sea? If is given different names, such as coast, 
.r slmre. Examine he shores of a pond or lake. Usual|y 
tbey are hot straight but are more or ]ess curved or bent. 
If flere is no pond or ]ake near by, examine the pools by 
he roadside or in a field after a heavy rainfal|. (A 
physical geography chart of land and waer will greatly 



SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS: SHORE FORMS 63 

help here in imparting correct notions. Su«h a chart 
should be placed in every school.) 
What do you call this point of land that juts out int, 
the water? If is a cape. Find other capes. Here is 
another but ]arger mass of land jutting out into the 
water. Note that if has a neck-like part joining it fo the 
mainland. The large mass of land just beyond the neck 
is almost surrounded by water. What naine is given fo 
this land? If is a pe,insula. The neck of land 
it fo the main]and is called an istlm,s. Find other 
peninsulas and isthmuses. What is the point of land at 
the end of the peninsula called? \\ïat is a cape? Look 
af that land out there in the water. How would vou 
describe if? If has water all around it. What shall we 
call it? If is an isla,d. If the peninsula were fo become 
separated from the mainland by having ifs isfhmus washed 
away, why would we have fo change ifs naine? What 
would it have fo be named? Why? What is the chier 
difference between an island and a peninsula? What is 
an island? A peninsula? An sthmus? Find as many 
pictures as you can of islands and capes. 
Now take your sand-table and reproduce the above 
land forms, using damp sand fo represent the peninsulas, 
islands, etc., and white paper or glass fo represent the 
water. 
Deal similarly with such water forms as gulfs, bay., 
straits, etc. 
Fina]ly, by oral description and especially by pictures, 
try fo get clear notions of these land and water forms as 
they exist in the ocean: there are the great capes, bays, 
islands, straits, etc., of the world. 



64 GEOGRAPHY 

WINDS 
Why do you like fo fan yourself when you fee] hot? 
Why does tllis make you feel cooler? When the face is 
bot, the air next fo it becomes hot too. The breeze from 
the fan drives away the hot air and cooler air takes ifs 
place. If this is k,pt up for .'«,me time, y«u feel much 
more comfortable. 
Wbat is a calm da3"? Why do you feel so uncomfor- 
table on a calm, bot dav? If a breeze bcgins fo blow on 
such a day, why are you likely fo feel more comfortable? 
Wbat effect has willd upon the weather? Winds u»ually 
make tbe weather coolcr. 
Wind is air in motion. (Sec lesson on "Winds", 
Form I.) What causes air fo more? Let us try fo find 
out. Strike two chalk brushes together over a hot store. 
Why does the chalk dust rise fo the eeiling? The heated 
air carries it up. What causes the lieated air fo rise? 
The heat of the store causes it fo rise. Heat, then, must 
have s-mething fo do with the movement of air. Think 
of other examples of heat causin z air fo rise. Steam 
from a eup of hot tea. cinders and smoke from a tire out- 
of-doors, etc. Watch the movemcnt of smoke in a room 
wbere there is a lihted lamp. ,ce how the smoke flats 
toward the ]amp and then rises above if. Hold the palm 
of vour hand af different heights above a cup of hot 
Iea. Do likcwise over a eup of co]d watcr. Wbat dif- 
ference do you observe ? Wby do ,:ou feel heat above the 
hot tea and aot abc,ve the eold water? Tbe reason is tiret 
air is rising from the former but hot from the latter. 
What takes the place of the heated air after if bas risen 
from the store? Trv fo find out bv strikin z tbe chalk 
brushes together at the side of, and bclow the stove. 
Cooler air from tle floor takes tbe place of the hea/ed 



SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS: WINDS 65 

air; it quickly becomes warm and in turn rises. This 
action of the air conl.iuues as long as thcre is tire in the 
store. Make a drawing on the black-board that will show 
the movement of air in a room, caused by the hot stovc. 
Raise the" window a little af the b,tom ami lower if 
af the top. Test the air currents with the chalk brushes. 
What causes the cool draught (or wind) to enter below? 
Why does the warm air go out above? The reason is that 
the hot store makes the air lighter, and therel',»re if rises 
fo the top just as cork rises in water. Af the saine rime 
the cooler and heavier air pushes in af the side to takc 
the place of the heated air that has risen. In this way a 
outrent or movement of air is kept up. 
Is there anything like this taking place on a large 
scale out-of-doors? What is if? The sun makes some 
places hotter than others. Over such places the heated 
air rises and the cooler air from neighbouring places 
flows along fo take the place of the heated air. When we 
feel the cool air ru.hinff by on ifs way fo do this, we sav 
the wind is blowing. In ail parts of the world there is 
a movement of the air from co]der fo warmer regions. 
This movement of air over the earth is called wind. 
Why are north winds usually cooler than south wind.? 
What winds usually bring rain? Fair weather? When 
clouds cover the sky and the south wind blows, it is a 
sign of rain. After the rain ceases, the wind changes and 
becomes a north or a west wiud, the clouds are blown 
away, and we bave fine weather. Why is there little or 
no dew on a w. indy niffht.9 If the air is botter over the 
land flmn over ihe lake, which way will the wind blow? 
13n or near a large lake, whv bave we brcezes bh»wing 
to«ard the lake in the mornings ara| from the lake in the 
evenings? Af what time of a .ummtr's day d,, we usuallv. 



66 GEOGRAPHY 

have least wind? Where do people go in summer fo get 
c.,»l breezes? Why? What useful kinds of work can 
winds ,lo ? 
By keeping a daily record of the direction of the win,1 
and «,f the kinl of weather that if brings; you will be 
:tl,h. t«, disco,ver f,»r ymrself whieh winds are most likely 
tf) cause fair weatller and whicb rainy weather. You 
sh«,uhl he able. too. to read the thermometer and record 
lhe dailr Ien,pcraIure. Below will be round a form of 
weather ree«,rd suitable for public school purposes. 

WEATHER RECORD 
I Time Direction Kind of Tem- I 
Date of Day of Wind Weather perature I Remarks 

i I 

RAIN 
Make the following observations: 
(a) That, whcn a l,an t,f water is set out-of-doors for 
a day or so, the water will disappear. What became of 
it? Why can you hot sec if in the air? What naine is 
given fo water that disappears into the air in this way? 
If is called vapour, and we say that the water has 
evaporated. If the pari is placed on a hot store, the water 
will disappear more quickly. Whv? ' 
(b) That the water in a salt and water solution will 
evaporate, leaving the sait i,ehil,l. (S.e lessm on " The 
(h'ean ".) W]mt does this teach us? 



SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS: RAIN 

(c) That ink-wells in a warm school-room, if left 
uncovered, will soon become dry. Why? 
(d) That wet clothes hung on a line out-of-doors will 
soon become dry. Why ? 
(e) That the sun an,l the in,1 will soon dr)" up roads 
and fields after a rainfall. Why? 
From these observations we learn that water may be 
changed into an invisible water vapour and that heat will 
hasten the process. This water vapour is continuously 
rising from tbe surface of every body of water exposed 
to the air. If is rising from the ocean, from ail lakes 
and rivers, and even from the ground wherever it is damp. 
What a large amount of water there must be in the air 
although we do not see if! 
Xow, how does ail this invisible water that is in the 
air get back fo the earth ? Perhaps the following observa- 
tions mav help you fo answer this question: 
(a} Have you ever observed on a warm summer dav 
that the sides of a pitcher of cold water will "sweat"? 
Where did the water that colle«ts on the outsi«le of the 
pitcher corne from? Whv are vou sure that it did hot 
corne from the inside of the pitcher? What ha. really 
happenerl is that the pitcher cooled the invisible water 
vapour in the air near if and caused if fo form in drops 
on its cold sides. We say that the vapour conened on 
the sides of the pitcher. 
(b) Observe that the window panes of the kitchen 
are often covered in cool weather with water, especially 
on "wash" davs. Why? The invisible vapour from the 
boiler on the store condensed on the windows. 
(c) Observe the little white clouds formed bv your 
"breath" on a frosty day. Why do you hot sec it on a 



68 GEOGRAPHY 

warm day? It is not «old enough fo condense the water 
vapour that is in the breath. 
(d) bserve the " steam" that sometimes rises from 
a river, or pond, or lake. Under what weather conditions 
do vou sec if? ]t ries on|y when the air is colder than 
the water. What naine should we give fo this so-ealled 
'" steam"? We should call if fog, but if is really a eloud. 
What do the above observations teach? They teach: 
(a) That invisible water vapour floating about in the 
air may be changed back into water by eoming in contact 
with a co]d surface. The formation of dew may be thus 
explained. The earth after sunset cools faster than the 
air. This cooled earth eools the water vapour in the air 
next to file earth, and consequently water condenses upon 
the cold _Œras'--- stones, etc., just as if eondensed upon the 
cold pitcher or upon the cold window pane. On very eold 
nights this water vapour freezes on grass, stones, etc., and 
forms «lite frost. Truc frost is hot frozen dew. 
(b} That warm winds sometimes earry the water 
vapour with which they are laden many toiles, until if 
rea«hes a region where the air is very much eolder. What 
happens fo the water vapour when the eold air of this 
rezon chil]s if? ]t condenses into a great mass of ver)" 
tiny water drop «alled a «loud. .ometimes these clouds 
form high up in the air. Why? It is because if is so 
eo]d up there. (Sec ]esson on "Mountains".) Why are 
clouds so often seen round the tops of high mountains? 
Whv is a cloud able fo float in the air? The tiny 
drops of water of which the cloud is composed are so very, 
very small and so very, very light that they do not fa|l. 
Perhaps the fo]lowing experiment may help you o under- 
stand this: Powder a piece of chalk until it is as fine as 
dust. Drop some of this dust into a dish of water. Why 



SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS: THE SEASONS 69 

did if hOt sink fo the bottom? The dust-like particles 
are so small and light that they float. Next, break up a 
lump of ehalk into pieces about the size of peas and drop 
them into the water. What happen., fo them? Why did 
they sink? What does the experiment teach us? It 
teaches us that if the pieces of chalk are small enough, 
they will float in water, but if they are eonsiderably larger. 
they will sink. Drops of water in the air act in a similar 
way. If they are small enough, they will flJat in the air; 
but, if thev are large enough, they will fall fo the earth. 
When a cloud becolnes still more chilled, what happens 
fo its tiny drops of water? They unite to form larger 
drops and these fall fo the earth as rain. 
Snou, is formed when the tin)" droplets whieh form the 
eloud freeze. Each frozen droplet beeomes a ervstal of 
SHOW. When a large number of these tiny erystaIs eling 
together, they form a snou'flake. The white mantle of 
ShOW that covers the earth after a snow-storm is really a 
frozen eloud. 
Hall is probably frozen rain-drops or a mixture of 
rain and snow frozen. 
THE 8EASONS 
Naine the f,ur sea:ons. Whv ,lo the seasons change 
four rimes a year? Let us try fo find the reason b S 
observing the sun's shadow during the year. F«w this 
purpose drive a stake into the ground in a sunny place. 
Have if about three feet high and wide enough to cast a 
distinct shadow. The observations should be carried out 
during the whole vear and may be begun at any rime. 
Measure the length of the shadow of the stake at 9 
a.m., at noon, and at 4 p.m. When is the shadow shortest ? 
Why is if shorter af noon than at 9 a.m., or at 4 p.m.? 
When it i$ shortest the sun bas reached the highest point 



70 GEOGRAPHY 

in the skv for that day. Itis at no,,n that shad«»ws are 
always shortest. At what rime of day is the sun hoUest? 
Why? If is hottest then because the sun is most nearly 
,verhead. 
Just here you may, incidcntally, make the following 
observations: When thc shadow of thc stake on any day is 
shortcst, that is, when if is exactly 12 o'clock noon, 
the straight edgc of a board along the shadow and, with 
a sharp-pointed stick or with a mixture of lime and 
water, mark a straight line on the ground. Note that 
evcry day af noon, no marrer what the length of the 
shadow may be, if always lies along this line. What naine 
may be given fo this line? We may call if t'he "noon 
line ", anothcr good naine is " meridian line", as the 
word meridian lneans mid-day. In what direction does 
this meridian line run? If is always a north and south 
line. Whenevcr the end of the shadow reaches this line 
wc know that if is noon without consulting the dock. 
Is the sun af the saine place in the sky af noon all the 
vear round ? Try to find out by watching the shadow cast 
I,y the stake. Suppose that we begin observations about 
,";cptember firs±. With a tape-line or yard-stick nleasure 
the sl,adow twice a month. Be sure that the measure* 
ment is taken alwavs exactly af 12 o'clock noon. Keep 
a record of these measurements. Also keep a record of 
the number of hours and minutes between sunrise and 
sunset on the days on which you measure the shadow. 
Get the latter information from a good almanac and test 
ifs accuracy occasionally as you final opportunify. The 
following form will serve for preserving records: 

107"f-. OF EDUCATJO 
ISTORICAL COLLECTION 



RECORDS 
RECORDS 

71 

Date of Observation Length of Shadow Time Interval between 
Sunrise and Sunset 

If the day set for the observation is eloudy, take the 
first sunny day that follows. Note that a straight rod 
with one end placed af the end of the shadow and resting 
upon the top of the sfake wi]l ahays point direct]y fo 
the sun. 
What was the length of the shadow af the heginning 
of September? On Septemher 21st'? Mark the end of 
file shadow on September 21st hy a peg driven into thc 
ground. Why is the shado  growing longer? If must 
be because the sun is getting lower down in the sky. In 
what part of the sky is the sun at noon on Septemher 
21st? If is on this date that the day and night are equal 
in lenh. It is for this reason that it is called an 
equinox an, as this is the rime when autumn begins, t 
is called the autumn equinox. This is the real end of 
summer and the beginning of autumn. 
Continue making measurements af least twice a month 
as rime passes. As the shadows are getting longer, what 
change is gradually taking place in the position of the 
sun? What change is taking place af the saine rime in 
the len,zth of rime that the sun is shining each day? 
What change is taking place in the weather? Il is 
gradually getting colder. What is causing the weather to 



72 GEOGRAPHY 

become colder? There are two reasons why the weather 
is becoming colder, namely: (a) The sun is gradually 
getting lower down in the sky and cannot give us as 
much heat as it did. (b) As the days are gradually 
getting shorter, we are getting less heat daily from the 
When is the shadow longest? On or about December 
21st. Drive a peg into the ground to mark the end of 
the shadow. Note that the shadows bave gradually been 
lcngthening ever since you began your observations in 
Septemher. ll']«n t]e shadows af noon are lengthening 
from day to day, if is a si9t, lhat winter is comin 9. 
December 21st is the shortest day in the year, and if is 
on this date that winter real]y begins. How long did 
autunm last? If lasted for three months--from Sep- 
tember 21st to December 21st. 
lIow do the shadows change after December 21st? 
They gradually become shorter. What corresponding 
change is taking place in the position of the sun in the 
sky ? What change is also taking place in the rime during 
which the sun is shining each day? When are the day 
and night again equal in length? On March 21st. T'his 
is called the spring equinox. Why? It is on this date 
tbat winter is said fo end and st)ring to begin. IIow long 
bas winter lasted? How does the length of shadow on 
March 21st compare with its length on ,eptember 21st? 
Whv are the shadows the same length? The sun on 
journey back has reached the saine part of the sky if was 
in ]ast September. • 
Note that, after this date, the shadows continue fo 
shorten, and that the rime during which the sun is shining 
eaeh day also continues fo lengthen. What change in 
the weather is taking place? If continues fo et warmer 



RECORDS 73 

and warmer. Why? ;ivetworeasons. ll'lr the sladows 
af nool are s]ortening as the days go by, it i. a sigt ta! 
summer is coming. When is the shadow shortest? On 
or about June 21st. DrLe a peg into the ground fo mrk 
the end of the shadow at this date. How many hours of 
sunshine are there on June 21st? This is the ]ongest 
day in the year. Where is the sun at noon? It is the 
nearest overhead o us that if ever gets. It is on June 
21st that spring ends and that summer begins. After 
this date the shadow begins fo ]engthen once more. 
What season begins when the end of the shadow 
reaches the peg nearest the stakc? The peg farthest 
away from the stake? What scas«ms begin when the end 
of the shadow reaches the middle peg Bv using a straigbt 
rod, the corresponding positions of the sun in the sk:y on 
these dates are readily round. 
Some of you may observe the sha,low of the stake a 
few rimes during the summer holidays, noting the dates 
of observation and the lengths of the shadow. By doing 
this vou will seeure most useful records eovering the 
entire year. 
There is another far.t«,r influeneinz the «.hanges in 
weather that should perhap. be referrod fo. It i. very 
closely related fo the two factors already mentioned. 
Why does the hotte.t weather eome afler the l,)n,est day 
of the year (June 21st) ? We have already learned that 
after Match 21st the sun aetuallv shines more than twelve 
hours each day. If follows, therefore, that the earth i. 
reeeiving more heat in the davtime than iI loses by eooling 
af night. This surplus heat is stored up in the earth and 
is gradually making the earth warmer. Henee, there is 
more of this surplus heat in the earth in July and in 
August than in June. The great heat that we feel during 



74 GEOGRAPHY 

July and August is, therefore, owing fo the heat from the 
direct rays of the sun, together with that given off from 
the hcated earth. It is because of the heat from both 
these sotlrces that July and August are the hottest months 
of thc year. 
In a similar way if can be shown that out coldest 
weather is aller the shortest day in the year (De¢'ember 
21st). Durilg Januarv and February most of the heat 
of the surfs rays is used up in warming the cold 
earth; there is little radiation of heat to warm the air. 
IIeat conditions, however, gradually improve as spring 
approaches. 
The facts Iearned by the above observations may be 
summarized as fo]]ows: 
(1) The longest day of direct sunlight is on June 
21.,t : the shortest, on l)ecember 21st; day and night are 
equal in length on March 21st and on September 21st. 
(?) Autumn.],egins on September 21st; winter on 
December 21st: spring on March 21st; and summer on 
• lune 21st. Each season is therefore three months in 
length. 
(:} The sun's shadows gradually lengthen during 
summer and autumn, and shorten during winter and 
spring. 
(4) It is just when the sun has reached ifs highest 
place in the skv that otlr summer begins, and if is just 
when it has reached its lowest place in the sky that o'ar 
winter begins. 
(5} Our seasons are therefore caused by the following 
re]ated fat.tors working together: 
(a) The sun gradua]ly changing ifs place in the sky. 



VARIATION IN LENGTH OF DAY AND NIGHT 75 

(b) The variation in tbe length of time during which 
tbe sun sbines each day. 
(c) Tbe gradual warming and cooling of the earO. 

VARIATION IN THE LENGTt[ OF DAY AND 'IGHT 
In connection with tbe observations of tbe shadows 
cast by the sun during the year, make tbe following con- 
current observations to determine wby tbe length of dav 
and night varies during the year: 
On or about Septêmber 21st, af sunrise, stand at tbe 
sbadow stake and observe the exact place on the horizon 
line wbere the sun first appears. Drive a peg into the 
ground a few feet distant from the stake and in the 
straight line between tbe stake and the risinff sun. On 
the evening of the saine day make a similar observation 
as fo /he setting sun. The noon-time position of the sun 
in the skv can be readily round (see page ;1). The three 
principal positions of the sun in the sky are thus deter- 
mined and permanently marked. Ask a pupil to stand at 
/he stake and with arm extended trace witb tbe forefinger 
the arc described by the sun in ifs apparent journey from 
sunrise to sunset. 
Repeat the observations on or about December 21st, 
Match 21st, and June 21st; and mark permanently tbe 
points of sunrise and sunset. 
At the close of these observations, require the pupils 
in review to trace, as described above, the three arcs, 
namely, (a) the arc of .lune 21st, (b) the arc of Sep- 
tember 21st and March 21st, and (c) the arc of December 
21st. This should present no difficulty, as the sunrisc, 
noon, and sunset positions of the sun on tbese dates have 
been permanently marked by means of the pegs. 



76 GEOGRAPHY 
POSITIO OV TI[E IIDD.tY SN 
If thcse instructions are carcfully carried out, the 
fo]lowing fa(.ts should bec(»me quite intelligible fo the 
( Tbat, on or al»out .lune 21st. sunrie and sunset 
lake place farlhest north. hat therefore the arc marking 
lhe pafhway of the sun across the sky is longer, and 
hence that there are more hours of l]rect sunlight and 
c<»seuently longer days and shorter nights, than ai any 
other rime of the vear. 
(b) That. on or about December 2lt. sunrise and 
sud, set take [»]ac.e farthcr s.uth, that therefore the arc 
markinz the pathway of the sm across the sky is shorter, 
.d hence tht there re fewer hours of direct sunlight 
and consequent]y shorter davs and loner nights, than ai 
any other rime of the vear. 
(c) That. on or about eptember 21st, the »oints on 
be horizon line whcre the sm rises and set c»rresond 
with tlmse of March .lst and are intermediate between 



THE EARTH AS A GLOBE 

77 

those of June 21.t and December 21st, and that on these 
dates the su, shines twelve hours, thus making day and 
night equal. 
NOWE.--In the ahove ob.¢ervati,ns the best re.ults will 
be obtained where the surface of the surrounding country 
is more or les. level. :If so desired, the sunrise and sun- 
set points on the horizon line mav be markcd bv tree., 
buildings, or other objects in the distance. The explana- 
tion of the ariation in the length of the arcs traced bv 
the sun's apparent movement acro»s the :ky will be taught 
in the Junior Grade of Form IV. 

THE EARTH .AS A GLOBE 
ItS shape: Many years ago people believed that the 
earth was fiat. What led them into this belief? What 
shape does the earth appear to hae? Why does it appear 
to be fiat ? It is because we see but a very small part of it 
at a rime. Place a piece of paper with a sma]l hole in it 
upon an apple. You will observe that the .mall part of 
the surface of the apple seen through the hole appears, to 
be fiat although we know that the apple is round. What 
is the reason of this? What application has this to the 
earth and its shape? 
What proof have we that the earth is round ? Perhaps 
the most conincing proof to us is that people have 
journeyed around the earth. They have started from 
home and by going eastward for many dav. round that 
they finally reached home again coming from the west, 
and vice versa. You may go around a block in a town 
or township and corne back to the starting-place, but fo 
do so you will require fo change your direction several 
times. In journeying around the earth, however, people 
keep the same general direction and get back to their 



78 GEOGRAPHY 

starting-place. Take a ball or an apple and show how 
this may be done. 
Show, by holding an object in front of a lighted lamp. 
that the shadow cast by the objeet is determined by its 
own shape. During an eclipse of the moon, watch the 
shadow that slowly creeps over its face. What shape has 
the edge of this shadow? If is the earth's shadow that 
vou see on the face of the moon. (See diagram, page 
1, Text-book.} Then what shape must the earth have? 
If we lived on the moon, the earth would be seen by us 
af nights as a very large moon. 
Because the earth is a ball-like body or sphere, it is 
ealled a globe. Here is a small one îhat is kept in the 
school to .how you just what shape the earth has. 
Size: ttow large do you think the earth is? Measure 
an alple through its centre from one side to the other 
side. This is cailed ifs diameter. If it were possible for 
us to measure the diameter of the earth in a similar way, 
we should final it fo be about 8,et0 toiles long. How many 
da.'s would .]'ou require fo travel this distance if your 
raii_way train covered 4(t niles a day? T'he distance 
around the earth (ifs circumference) is about 25,000 
mlles. The earth is larger than the moon but much 
smaller than the sun. 
Surface: (f what substance is the surface of the earth 
composed? If is composed of land and waîer. What do 
we mean by the terre "land"? By this terre we reallv 
mean rocl'. In what different forms is this rock found? 
It is found either as solid rock or as soil. The latter is 
simply rock that has been worn down to extremely fine 
pieces. There is about three times more water surface 
on tbe earth than there is land surface. Tbe land is not 
evenly distributed over the face of the earth, but is found 



THE TOWNSHIP 79 

in great masses. What are these great masses of land 
called? What are the great divisions of water called? 
On the globe at first and afterwards on wall maps, 
]earn the names and relative positions of these continents 
and oceans. 
THI] TOWNSHIP 
]',ural ¢ntario has been surveyed into units called 
townships. These are usually separated from one another 
by roads called town-lines or boundary roads. Each town- 
ship is further surveyed into concessions and lot.. A con- 
cession is usually a strip of land extending from one end 
of the township fo the other and is subdivided so as t 
form a row or fier of lots, each of these lots having the 
samefrontage and containing the saine area. 
The roads in the township run both lengthways 
crossways. The former usually run alongside the conces- 
sions and are known as concession roads or concession line.% 
or simply concessions. It will thus be seen that the terre 
'" concession" may be used in two senses. What are they.9 
At convenient intervals roads cross the township af right 
angles fo the concession roads; these are called side-road.. 
These concession roads and side-roads usuallv divide the 
township into blocks containing about 1,0o0 actes each. 
In most of the older townships there is, in some cases. 
onlv one concession between adjoining concession roads, in 
other cases, there are two concessi«ms between. In the 
former case the lots are, as a rule, larger in area. 
Both the conce.sions and the lots are numbered--the 
former from the town-line running along one side, and 
the latter from the town-line running alon one end, of 
the township. By this arrangement if is a simple marrer 
fo final, or fo describe, the location of any farm in the 
township. 



80 GEOGRAPHY 

NOTE.--The teacher should familiarize himself with 
the method of survey in the particular township in which 
his school is situated. ,- plan of the township may be 
draw on the black-board and the pupils drilled until 
they «.an locate any tarin, sehool, ehurch, etc., that mav 
be named. A plan of the local section on a scale large 
enough to allo" the names of the farmers to be written 
on their respeeti'e lots will great]y aid in the under- 
standing of the township plan. 

MAPS 
To teach representation by maps, try the fo]]owing. 
Begin with a drawing or plan of the teacher's desk or 
table. This mav be donê thus: Place the table so that 
two of its edges run north and south. Place a large sheet 
of paper on if. Mark the centre of the paper and the 
directions, ort]t, sout]t, east, west. Now place several 
simple objects on the paper. Drill on the directions of 
these objects froln the centre and from one another. _N:ext, 
remove the objects, one by one, and mark in each case 
the place where if stood, either by writing the naine on 
the paper or bv making a simple outline, or picture, of 
the object. Drill upon the direction of these pictures 
from one another. l'he pupils will. in this way, learn that 
the sheet of paper is real]y a plan of the table, and that 
such a plan is called a rnap. 
Take the paper off the table and bang it on the north 
wa]] of the schoo]-room. Continue the drill on the direc- 
tions of this map. The pupils wi]l soon learn that the 
top of the map represents the north; the bottom, the 
south; the right-hand side, the east; and the left-hand 
side, the west. 
After these relations have become fixed in their minds, 



MAPS  

require them to draw s.;milar maps of their desks. They 
will rèadily see that if is impossible fo draw all maps tbe 
full size of the objects. Itis not advisable at this stage 
to trouble them with details of size and proportion. Tho 
important thing is that they learn what a map real]y is. 
After drawing a plan, or map, of the desk, the pupil. 
may attempt a map of the sehool-room. This should 
indieate tbe position of a few of tbe more prominent 
objects in the room, sueh as thc store, the tcacher's dcsk, 
the door, etc. A map of the scbool grounds may be 
attempted next, followed later by nmps of the section aad 
of {he township. 
If is advisable that these maps should be hung at first 
upon the north wall. After tbe different positions and 
directions have been drilled upon, the maps may be hung 
upon the other walls. 
Be sure that the pupils understand tbe meaning of 
every mark or sigm on the map. Every sueh mark, or 
sign, is like a word used in a sentence. Bebind everv 
word there must be an idea; otherwise the sentence can- 
hot express thought. ,Iarks, or signs, on the map, like 
words in a sentence, are of no use unless they help to 
relate ideas. 



CHAPTER VIII 

FORM III, JUNIOR GRADE 

DETAILS O1 THE COURSE 

RECOIIMENDATIONS TO TEACHERS 

I DEALIG with the geography of a continent (or other 
large unit), impress upon the class that they are, at 
saine rime, dealing with the larger features pertaining to 
the individual countries (or smaller units) comprising 
the continent (or large unit). For example: In dealing 
with the geography of North America, the pupils should 
consciously know that they are becoming familiar with 
many of the general features of Canada; and, vice versa, 
that, when the more detailed study of Canada is taken. 
they should consciously know that .they are enlarging 
their knowledge of North America. The treatment of 
the Isrger and smaller units, therefore, should be so inter- 
related that their continuity and unity will become im- 
1,ressed upon the pupils. This principle should be care- 
fuIly followed throughout this and the succeeding Grades. 
Bv so doing the very common error of considering snch 
h»pics as isolated nits of study will be avoided. 

SUPPLEMENTARY READING 

The Story of t]e Earth and Ifs Peoples: 
Since this book bas been specially recommended by 
the Minister of Education as a Reader in Geography for 
Form III and as a supplementary Reader in Form IV, 
trustees should see that a suflîcient number of copies are 
2 



SUPPLEMENTARY READING 

83 

placed in the school library for the use of the pupils of 
these Grades. (See sec. 3 and 3 (1) of Authorized Text- 
books, page 88, Regulations and Courses of ,_'tudy, 1915.) 
If is recommended: 
1. That the Junior Grade of Form III rcad the 
subject-matter pertaining fo North America. 
2. That the Senior Grade of Form III read tl,e re- 
mainder of the book. 
3. That the Form IV Grades re-read the book. 
How fo use the Reader: 
1. In the Junior Grade of Form III and in both 
Grades of Form IV, the recitati-n in class 
should be followed by the reading of the 
corresponding chapter in the Reader. 
2. In the Senior Grade of Form III, the subject- 
matter assigned for supplementary read.ing is 
outside that prescribed by the ('ourse of Study 
for this Grade. The teacher, in this case, 
should prepare his pupils by means of a pre- 
liminary class "talk"--just sufficient fo whet 
their interest, so that they may read with more 
appreciation and profit. 
In addition fo The Sfory of tle Earfh and Ifs People.¢, 
the school library should be well stocked with books of 
travel, etc., and these should be freely drawn upon for 
supplementary reading. Better educational results are 
likely to be obtained by striving fo inculcate a faste for 
good reading while the pupils are still af schoola faste 
that tan be further gratified after school days are over-- 
than by requiring an undue amount of memorization of 
text-book marrer. 



84 GEOGRAPHY 

Encourage pupils to bring in books and magazine 
articles. Encourage the making of scrap-books for pre- 
serving cuttings, pictures, statistics, etc., that may be use- 
fui in the geography class. Let pupils read much from 
all available sq)rces, without holding them responsible in 
recitation for all that they read. Encourage the reading 
habit but direct if. Do nof make the work foo forma¿. 
l«casi«nally as.ign articles or chapters fo be read af home 
i.v a pupil, fo be afterward presented fo the class. 

THE EARTH AS A WHOLE 

The earth as a whole (general notions only)" Its 
fornl, apparent and real; axis; poles, relation fo North 
Star; rotation on axis, da)" and night; equator, relation 
t« the perles, recognition on globe and map; a general 
knowledge of the warm equatorial regions, the cold polar 
wastes, and tbe intermediate regions of moderate tempera- 
tures--with their low and high suns, and their main 
differences of climate and products. 
Sec Geography P, eader: The Story of the Earth and 
Ifs Peoples--" As 0thers See Us ", page 7. 
For hints on the teaching of the following topics, see 
{-'hapter IX: The axis of the earth; the poles; the 
the earth's rotation; hot, femperate, and cold 

equator ; 
regions. 

CONTINENTS AND OCEANS 

The location of fhe continents, with their chief coun- 
tries and islands; and of the oceans, with their chier seas, 
gulf.q, and bays. 
Fix names, locations, and relative sizes of the con- 
tinents and oceans. 
Connect them with stories and pictures of hnman lire 
alreadv more or less familiar. A few characteristic facts 



NORTH AMERICA 

85 

shou]d be connected with each, for example, Asia as the 
home of the Chinese and Japanese; the largest continent; 
the home of the Jews in Bible rimes ; people less developed 
than here; etc. 
Deal with the chier countrie., islands, seas, gulfs, and 
bars in a similar way, ïor example, China as noted for 
its great population, tea, etc. ; Argentina, for cattle, hides. 
wheat; IIawaiian Is]ands. for their location in mid- 
Pacific, f«,r their suar and rice; Egypt for the flooded 
Nile, pyramids, caravans, etc. 
Take imaginary journey. fo add variety and interest. 
A a re.ult of this study, the children are expected fo 
have a general, bnt well organized, knowledge and elearer 
pictur,.s of lire and its tspieal customs, and of the pro- 
ducts, physical phenomena, climate, etc., of the world at 
large. 
Sec Geography Reader: " Land and Water", page 15; 
"The Sea-shore ", page 17 ; "" The Atlantic Ferry ", page 
25; " The Harvest of the .ea ", page 31. 

NORTH AMERICA 
1. Location : 
(a) With referenee fo other continents 
(b) With reference to the oceans 
(c) With reference fo hot and cold regions. 
?. Shape and size in comparison with other continents. 
3. Countries: Canada, United States and Alaska, Mexico, 
Central American Republics. 
4. Surface Features: 
(a) Highlands and lowlands 
{b) Coasts 
{c) Drainage systems. 



86 GEOGRAPHY 

5. Climate : 
Temperature, moisture, winds. How influenced by 
location, shape, and size of the continent, and by 
surface features. 
6. Natural Resources: 
(a) Vegetable 
(b) Animal 
(c) 5iineral. 
IIow dependent upon conditions outlined above. 
7. Industries : 
(al tIunting and fishing 
(bi Grazing and stock-raising 
(c) Lumbering 
(d) Agriculture 
(e) Mining 
(f) Manufacturing. 
8. Tran.portation and Commerce: 
(a) Infernal trade, with routes 
(b) External trade, with routes 
(c) Commercial centres with reasons for location 
and growth. 
9. People : 
(a) Native inhabitants 
(b) History of settlcment. How influenced by phy- 
sical environment. 

Some such outline as the aboie should always be in 
the mind of the teacher, but it need hot always be fol- 
lowed with exactness, since there may be danger of the 
form of the lessons becoming stereot.ïed. As an example 
of such variation if may seem the natural thing to con- 
sider the effect of each land form upon the climate, in- 



CNDA  _A. WHOLE 

87 

stead of waiting until ail the surface features have been 
discussed before taking up the climate. 
See Geograpk, y 12eader: "A lïiver in the Ocean", 
page 29; " The Kuro Shiwo", page 35; " The North- 
West Passage ", page 43 ; '" In the Antarctic", page 4î ; 
'" America--Surface and Climate ", page 52. 
For hints on teaching North America, see Chapter IX. 

CANADA AS A WHOLE 
1. Location : 
Surrounding land and water conditions--«old and 
temperate regions. 
2. Extent : 
Its extent as coneeived in terres of toiles and of 
davs' journeys. £'omparisons with the United States 
and Europe. Provinces: Names, relative positions, 
capitals. 
3. l%lief : 
(1) In general : Highlands, watersheds, slopes (Paci- 
tic, Arctic and Hudson Bay, Atlantic}. 
(2) In more detail: (a) Acadian egion, (b) Low- 
lands of the St. Lawrence Yalley, (c) Lauren- 
tian ttighland, (d) The (reat ('entral Plain, 
and (e} The Great Mountain Area. 
See Ontario School Geograply, pages 86-92. For con- 
venience, this Geography is referred to in this Manual as 
the "Text-book ". 
4. Drainage : 
The chief rivers, particularly the St. Lawrence, 
Saskatchewan-Nelson, and the Mackenzie livers, in- 
cluding their largest branches--their size, direction, 
and importance as highways for navigation; their 



88 GEOGRAPHY 

rapids and ïalls, advantages and disadvantages; ïer- 
tility of their basins, cause and extent ; their lake ex- 
pansions (Ontario, Erie, Huron, Superior, Winnipeg, 
Athabaska, (-rêat Slave, Grêat Bear). Canals (" Soo", 
Wcl]and, and St. Lawrence). 
5. Climate : 
Apply thc chiêf factors affecting climate {latitude, 
e]evation, nature of soil, proximity to oceans or moun- 
tains, rainfall, local circumstances) fo conditions in 
('anada. ('haractcristic c]imatic conditions in each 
Province. 
6. S,»il : 
Fertile, barren or rock, cold or desert regions. 
ï. O,.«upations : 
Natural conditions that dêtêrmine the occupations 
of the people. Keep in mind the physieal divisions of 
Canada and their charaetêristies. Consider partieu- 
larly the extensive lumbering, hunting, fishing, agri- 
«ultural, mining, and manuïaeturing opêrations. 
carried on in diffêrent seetions of the country. Deter- 
mine what is donc with the produets of these indts- 
tries. Studv the important trade ehannels (water- 
ways, trunk railway.«, ports, oeean routes], and dis- 
euss the importance of £'a,ada's trade with (a) Great 
Britain, (b) the United States, (c) other countries. 
8. People : 
The people of Canada, the faces represented, the 
lanzuages .poken, immigration, (whence, why, how 
employed, training for citizenship). 
9. Government : 
Federal, larovineial; relation fo Great Britain. 



ONTARIO 

89 

See Geography Reader, pages 58-172,: 
"The Surface of Canada" "The Oldest 
Colony ", " New Scotland ", "New Brunswick" 
Edward Island ", " Quebec ", " Manitoba ", 
wan", "Alberta", " British Columbia ", 
Territories ". 
ONTARIO 

British 
, " Prince 
" Saskatche- 
" North-West 

1. Position 
2. Area : 
4»7,26? square toiles; how nlany times larger is 
its area than that of the British Isles, France, or 
Germany ? 
3. Surface Features: 
(1} Southern (Old) Ontario 
(2) Northern (New) Ontario. 
4. Drainage : 
(1) Into St. Lawrence Basin 
(2) Into Winnipeg Basin 
{3} Into Hudson Bay Basin. 
Trace the "heights of land" 
5. Climate : 
Temperatures, moisture, winds. 
6. Resources : 
(1) Soil 
(?) Forests 
(3) Mines 
(t) Water-ways and water-powers. 
,. Industries : 
(l) Agriculture : 
(a) Grain-owing 
(b) Dai .rying 
(c) Stock-raising 
(d) Fruit-growing. 



90 GEOGRAPHY 

(2) Iining: 
Iron, copper, nickel, silver, gold, sait, oil, gas. 
(3) Lumbering 
(4) Fisheries 
(5) I[unting and trapping 
(6) Manufaeturing : 
Iron and steel, machinery, eleetrical apparatus, 
heating apparatus, agrieultural implements, 
earriagês and automobiles, paper, furniture, 
pianos anti organs, flour and mea], woollens 
and eottons, meat-paeking, eanninff, etc. 
S. ri' r nspor t tt t Joli : 
Iailways, lakes and rivers, canals. 
9. People : 
Xati«,nalities represented, where settled. 
lt. Cities an«l ehieï towns: 
Location and principal industries. 
11. (overnment : 
Legislative, municipal, edueational. 
._s the newspapers ïrequently reïer to the eounties of 
(ntario in eonneetion with parliamentary representation, 
the administration of justice, and in other ways, il: is 
desirahle that pupils should ïamiliarize themselves with 
the eounties, eounty towns, an¢l distriets oï the Province. 
XOTE.--For a suggestive method oï teaehing Ontario, 
sec Lesson on Nova Seotia, pa.e'e 125. A reeent map, 
showing the Province as a whole, is essential fo good 
leaehing. Iaps showing N'ew Ontario in a corner, and 
drawn fo a smaller seale, are misleading. 
Sec Geography Reader: "" ¢)ntario "geetions I fo IV, 
page 96: "The United States", page 183: "Mexieo", 
page 211; "Central Ameriea", page 215; "'The West 
Indies", page 218. 



CIIAPTEI{ IX 

I,'(RM 11I..JUNI(II (;IIADE 

SI: (,(,E,_q I( N ,'4 F( R LESgONS 

THE EARTH AS A WHOLE 

ITS AXIS 

TIIE earth is continuously turning around. Illustrate 
this by means 5f an apple or an orange, and a hat-pin 
a knitting-needle. When the orange tnrns on the needh'. 
the latter may be callcd its axis. Why is it so calle,l? 
,imilarlv thc turning earth may be said fo have an axis. 
Of course there is no large needle or anything of the kind 
on which the earth turns. We imagine, however, that 
lhere is a line on which it turns, and this imaginary line is 
called the axis of the earth. 

TIIE POLES 
The ends of this imaginary line are called poles. The 
earth, therefore, is said to have two poles--one af the 
north, called the North Pole, and the other at the south. 
called the South Pole. Are these poles real or imaginary? 
If we were to go fo the places where these poles are, what 
do you think we would see? There would be no mark or 
anything of that kind to indicate the spot that is called thc 
pole. We would hot be ab|e fo recogize if, bnt if we had 
a skilled navigator or astronomer with us with the proper 
instruments, he would be able fo show us just where if is. 
The discoverer of the South Pole (Amundsen) made a 
heap of stones fo mark ifs location. 
.ql 



92 GEOGRAPHY 

ShoL 1,y means of the globe, that the Nortb Pole is 
straight north, and that the S«»uth Pole is straigbt south, 
of every place on the earth. 

TIIE EQUATOR 
lJraw a line arouml tbe globe half-way between the 
poles in sueh a position tbat eery point on it is equidistant 
from the two poles. This line is a eircle. If we imagine 
«ueb a eire]e drawn around the earth, what naine shall we 
give fo il? tIow mueh of the earth is north of the 
equator? How mueb is soulh of the equalor? If the 
whole earth is a sphere, what shall we eall each of these 
balves? The half north of the equator is known as the 
Northern Hemi.çphere. What shall we eall the half south 
of the equator? (See diagram, page 12, Text-book.) 
Examine the globe elose]y and te]l whieh of these hemi- 
spheres contains the greater area of land surface. Whieh 
has the more water surface? 

THE EARTH'S ROTATION 
Did you ever sit at the window of a rapidly moving 
rai]way car and see the te]egraph poles, fences, etc., 
,pparently moing in an opposite dircction fo that in 
whieh yœe,u were 'ravelling? If seemed as though you were 
m,t me»ring at ail. 
When you see fhe sun moving across file sky, is it 
rea]ly moving? Is the sun moving while file earth is 
s/ationary, or is the sun s/ationary w]li]e fhe earth is 
rll,Vinz? The [rufh is fhat the earth is rapi«lly rotating, 
that i., if is turning on ifs axis and carrying us around 
with if. If is turning so smoothly and silenfly that we 
do hot feel the motion af ail. • Ju.t as the fences, frees, 
etc., seemed fo be moving backward when we were on the 



HOT, TEMPERA.TE, AND COLD REGIONS 93 

swiftly moving train, so tbe sun secms fo be moving back- 
ward when we arc I,eing earried aroun,1 Oll thc swiftlv 
rotating earth. Illustrate tllis by rotating ail orange Oll a 
hat-pin before a lighted eandle. Let the candle represent 
lhe sun and show how tbe sun appears fo rise al,l .set. 
For a long tilne people believe,1 that if was the sun that 
moved and hot the earth. In what direction does the sun 
appear fo move aeross the sky? In what direction, then, 
does the earth aetually rotate? Illustrate this again by 
raeans of the orange and eandle. 
IIow long does if take the earth fo make one rotation ? 
What naine is given fo this period of rime? In what 
other sense is the terre " day" sometimes used ? If the 
eartb is 25,oo0 mlles in eireumferenee, how many mlles 
will a person af the equator travel every hour owing fo 
the rotation of the earth ? 
By rotating a globe or an orange before a lighted 
candle, show bow dav and nig|lt are caused.  ]lat con- 
ditions of day and night would prevail if the earth did hot 
rotate? What would probably be the effect upon plant 
and animal lire if the saine side of tbe earth were alwavs 
turned toward the sun ? What is the "circle of illumina- 
tion "? On which side of thi. line is it always twiligbt? 

IIOT, TE]IPERATE, AND CnLD EGIOXS 
Tbe sun's rays fall either vertieally or slantingly upon 
the earth. What kind of ra.vs, the vertical or slantin 
ives the greater heat? Why? The more vertical tbe 
rays are, the greater the nnmber of them tbat will fall 
upon a given area, and consequently the greater amount 
of heat will such an area receive. Explain this by means 
of a diagram on the 1,1ack-board. What part of the earth 
reeeives the vertical rays of the sun durin the ear. That 



94 GEOGRAPHY 

part in the neighbourhood of the equator. The hottest 
part of the earth is a great belt extending around the earth 
for about 15o mlles on each side of the cquator. Locate 
this region definitely on the map. What eountries and 
groups of islands are in this hot region? What food 
products are imported from these places? 
What kind of rays shines upon the reion around the 
North l'oie? As a result of this, what kind of climate has 
this region ? ]Iow far south from the North Pole does this 
extremelv eold elimate extend? .&bout 1.500 toiles. 
Locate this eold region on the globe and show that a 
portion of Northern Canada extends info if. What race 
of peop]e lire there? Deal similar]y with fhe south polar 
region. 
Between the eold polar region in the north and the 
hot rezon fo the south, there lies a broad belt about 3,t-t10 
toiles wide extending around the earth. What kind of 
«limate is this region likelv fo bave? It is neither ex- 
tremelv hot nor extremelv cold. W-hv? Canada and the 
Unifed States and nearlv fhe whole of Europe are in fhis 
tenperate region. In a similar way loeate the great tem- 
perate belt in the southern hemisphere. 

XORTH AMEF, ICA 
An e.xamination of the Course of Study will show that 
the geography of North America is definitely prescribed 
f,,r three Grades, namel)5 fhe Junior Grade of :Form 
and the Junior and Senior Grades of Form IV. In addi- 
lion fo this prescription, the individua] counfries of North 
America are prescrihed for stuc]v, in more or ]ess detail. 
in both Grades of Forms lII and IV. 
T']pis, therefore, shou]d suggest o the feacher fhat fhe 
geography of North America for the Junior Grade of 



LOCATION OF NORTH AMERICA 

95 

Form III should be of an introductory character. General 
notions on]), of location, size, political divisions, surface, 
drainage, coast featurcs, c]imate, latural rcsourccs, indus- 
tries, commerce, and I)eoplc, should bc taught af this 
stage. In Section XXI V of thc Ontario N«kool tleogral&y. 
the tcachcr will find stlbjeet-matter quite suitable f.r the 
work of this (;rade. 
The old method of teachig the physical geography of 
a continent required the pupils, after stating what ifs 
boundaries are, fo naine and tabulate ifs nmuntains, capes, 
rivers, bays, is/amIs, peninsulas, etc. T/le usual procedure 
was for the pupils fo point out their location on the wall 
map--at least the names were pointed out, and then a 
]ist of each was written on thc black-boar,l for memoriza- 
tion. So well was the memory drill done tiret, even after 
the lapse of thirty or forty years, many pe.ple are still 
able fo recite the complete list. For instance, the capes .n 
the east coast of North Amcrica are Farewell, Chidley, 
Charles, Race, Breh,n, ,%il,le, Cod, May, I[cnry, IIattcra.. 
Sable, Catoehe, Graeias-a-Dios. 
Sueh methods are hot of mucll value in developing 
the mental powers; thev overload the memory with matter 
that has iittle relation fo the other faculties of the mind 
and is of little practical use in after life. This method 
fai/s fo make intelligent learners and often develops a dis- 
faste for the subject. 

LOCATION OF NORTH AMERICA 

What oeeans wash the shores of North Ameriea? 
What two continents are east of Xorth America? W-hat 
c'ontinent is west ? What strait separates North Ameriea 
from Asia? How wide is Bering Strait? Thirtv-six 
mlles. What three continents inelose the Aretie 0eean? 



96 GEOGRAPHY 

llow near does North America approach the equator? 
Where docs the Tropic of ('anccr cross fle continent? 
The Arctic Circle? 

SIZE OF NORTH AMERICA 

What two continents are larger than North America? 
I[ow many rimes larger is Asia? What three continents 
are smaller ? ]Iow many Europes would make one Xorth 
Ameriea? What continent is almost as large as Xorth 
America? IIow long is Xorth America from north fo 
s«,uth? About 430 mlles. ]Iow wide is if from east fo 
west? Ab«,ut 3(-,f mlles. If you were to travel twenty- 
rive mlles an hour, how many days would if ake you fo 
cross Canada from the Atlantic fo the Paeific? 

COUNTRIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

The eountries of Xorth America may be taught at this 
stage, as it will be necessary to refer to theni frequently 
as the lesson proceeds. On an outline map of the con- 
tinent, carefully drawn on the black-board by the teacher, 
locate Alaska, Canada. the United States, Mexico, and 
('entral America. by marking the boundaries which 
separate them. Tint the countries lightly with crayons 
of different colours. Drill thoroughly. Then hang the 
wall map of North America beside it, and continue the 
dri]l on if until the positions of these countries are thor- 
«,uzh]y learned. 
If may prove helpful, at this point, fo refer in greater 
detail fo the use of maps. The method of gradually build- 
in.,_., up the blaek-board map as the Iesson is being taught. 
5,11owed by a revieiv driII on if and on the wall map, 
should be generally followed in elementary geography les- 
sons sueh as this. In tbe developrnent of the lesson, the 



COUNTRIES OF NORTH AMERICA 

97 

conversational method interspersed with questious to draw 
out the l)upils ' ideas wi]l prove effective. 
Af this stage, the teacher is strongly cautioned fo be 
constantly upon the alert fo assure himself that his l,upils 
are forlnhg lnenta| images of the country itself. Their 
thoughts must hot stop short ai the map, but should pelle- 
trate the map, as if werd, fo the country lying beyond, aud 
for the understanding of which the map may be regarded 
as a window through which they are looking out upon thc 
country. (See Chap. III, page 12.) The extcn! of their 
ability fo do [his will largely determine [he measure of 
their success or faiMre in this sub]ect. 
The black-board map should hot be overloaded with 
names. Che way of overcoming this diflïiculty is fo write 
the names of the features being taught, at the margin, 
number them, and then write the corresponding numbers 
on the map being dcveloped. In review drills these names 
should be blotted out or covered up. Teachers are advised 
fo make a new black-board map for each new topie taught. 
For example, che map may be used for developing thc 
physical features; another, for natural productions (sec 
Text-book, pages 81 and 82) ; etc. 
Good seat work exercises tu elementary map work may 
be providcd by placing in the hands of the pupils outline 
naps nmde by means of a eopying pad; or by taking a 
map outline ruade of eardboard, ]ayin if upon the blank 
page of an exereise book, and making a peneil line round 
ifs m,rgin. Later, of course, pupi]s shou]d outline their 
own maps by freehand. After tho phy.iea] features have 
been thoroughly taught, no[ belote, the pupils should give 
expression fo what they have learne3 by modelling in sand 
or elay. (,qee Chap. III, page 22.) 



98 GEOGRAPHY 

SURFACE OF' NORTH AMERICA 
Thcre are thrce grcat highland rcgions in North 
Amcrica. What are thcy? The teacher shows their loca- 
ti,m on the nJap. What is thc genera| shapc ol the con- 
ticnt? Show that the three great masses of highlands 
were factors in dctermining ifs outline. Which of the 
three highlamls bcst dcserves {ho naine "continental 
axis"? Why? 

TIIE IIOCKY MOUNTAI IIIGIILAND 
r, etween what two points does this extend? Near what 
ocean ]s if? ] what place is if narrowest? Where widest? 
In southern British Co]umbia if has a with of about 
400 iles. What is the principal range of mountains 
forming this IIighland3 Locate if definitely on the 
map. Note that, where the Highland is widest, there 
are several parallel ranes between the main oeky Moun- 
tain Bange and the Pacifie ('oast. Noie, too, that the 
«}tain of islan«s from Vancouver ]s]and north fo the end 
of the Aleutial Is]nns (sec wall map) really forms the 
tops of a submerged rnge. 
XXat is the highest mountain in North Ameriea? In 
what country is if? Look for if in Alaska. (Sec efer- 
cnoe Tables on page 73 of the Text-book.) How high is 
Mount M«Kin]ey? ('alouite its height in toiles. Find 
Mount St. Elias. Describe ifs location. What is the 
highest mountain in Canada? Locate if. What is the 
highest peak in the United States? In Mcxico? 
Which is fle longer slope of the ocky Mountaln 
]li.gh]and? Which is the shorter? How can you tell? 
qy does this High}and form such a barrier fo trade and 
Iravel ? In what country is the Rocky Mountain barrier 
likely fo be mosf felt ? Why? 



SURFACE OF NORTH AMERICA 

99 

THE .AI'PALACHIAN" :IIIGHLAND 
This ttighland should be dealt with in a manner 
similar to that employed in the study of thc P, oeky Moun- 
tain Highland. 

TIIE L..URENTIAN IIIG:IILAND 

This Itighland comprises more than hall of the 
Dominion of ('anada. Locate it on the map. The teacher 
wiil find its location in the Text-book on pages ïï and 7,% 
Note that if surrounds Iludson and James Ba3"s iii the 
form of a horse-shoe open to the north. (Sec diagram on 
page 74 of the Text-book.) Ifs most characteristic 
turc is the imlumerable lakes, large and small, with which 
if is covered. Ifs strealns are very irregular and tortuous, 
flowing from lake to lake in almost every direction. 
Pictures of mountains and mountain scenery will prove 
very helpful in aiding the pupils to get intelligent notions 
of these wonders of nature. A number of sueh pictures 
will be found in the T'ext-book and in The Sory of the 
Earth and Ils Peoples. 

CONTINENTAL SLOPES AND PL3_INS 
The crests of these great Highlands, together with a 
low-]:ying Drainage I)i,'ide extending from tho Appalachiai 
IIighland round the head of thc (reat Lakes fo the 
Laurentian IIeight of Lan,l (see map vn page ï2 of Text- 
book), are the natural boundaries that divide the surface 
of North America into ifs contincntal s]opes and plains. 
What are the two great slopes of the Rocky Mountain 
Highland? A short westerly s]ope towar«] the Pacific 
Ocean and a longer easter]y one toward the interior of the 
continent. What are the APpalachian s]opes? One east- 
ward toward the At]antic 0cean, and the other westward 



100 GEOGRAPHY 

toward the interior. What are the Laurentian slopes? 
Since the Laurentian Highland has the general shape of a 
horse-shoe open to the north, if bas an inner-curving slope 
t.ward Hudson and James Bays, and an outer-curving 
slope chiefly fo the south and west. 
The union of the eat easterly slope of the Rocky 
3lountain IIighland with the westerly slopes of the 
Alq»alachian and Laurentian IIighlands and the Drainage 
l)ivide fo lhe we.-oE of the Great Lakes, forms the flreat 
l'entral Plain. The union of the slopes of the Appalachian 
;n,l Laurentian Ilighlands fo the east of the Great Lakcs 
Drainage Divide, forms the great St. Lawrence Basin. 

DRAINAGE OF NORTH AMERICA 
What are the physical divisions of the continent as out- 
lined above? They are (a) the Pacific Slope, (b) the 
Atlantic Slope, (c) the Great Central Plain, (d) the 
Basin of the St. Lawrence, and (e) the Hudson Bay Basin. 
Locate these definitely on the map, and tell what their 
1,oundaries are. These natural divisions deternine the 
character of the drainage systems of North America. 

THE PACIFIC ,Q_'LOPE 

Why are most of the rivers of the Pacific Slope com- 
paratively short? Why are they swiftly flowing rivers? 
Why are man), of them of little use for navigation? Naine 
a fcw of the larger rivers. Ilow would j'ou account for 
the grcat length of the Yukon River? The Columbia 
River? How long are they? (See Text-book, page 273.) 
Whv are there so few rivers south of the Canada-United 
States boundary flowing into the Pacific Ocean ? 



DRAINAGE OF NORTH AMERICA 

101 

TttE ATLANTIC SLOPE 
Why are the rivers that flow from the Appalachian 
IIighland fo the Atlantic comparatively short? Why are 
many of them navigable in the lower parts of their course 
but hOt in their upper stretches? One of these rivers is 
in Canada. Naine if. XXqmt city is at ifs mouth ? Naine 
three American rivers flowing into the Atlantic, eacll of 
hich has a very large city af or near ifs mouth. Nanle 
the cities. Why are large cities so often found at or near 
the mouths of rivers ? 
TIIE (REAT (:ENTRAL PLAIN 
This extensive Plain comprises three very large river 
basins. What are they? Locate on the map the dividc 
between the Mackenzie Basin and the Winnipeg Basin. 
Note that if runs in a north-easterly direction from the 
vicinity of Mounts Brown and Hooker in the Rockies fo 
the Ne]son River. The Winnipeg Basin includes those of 
the Saskatchewan, Red, and Winnipeg Rivers. 
The divide between the Winnipeg Basin and the Mis- 
sissippi Basin, like that between tbe Maekenzie and Win- 
nipeg Basins. is low (prairie); yet it is called a tleight 
of Land. Trace, n the map on page 23 of the Text- 
book. ifs course from the Rocky Mountains fo the Drainage 
Divide a short distance west of Lake Superior. Sote that 
if follows roughly the international boundary line, but that 
if takes a dip fo the south round the head-waters of the 
Red River. Repeat the tracing until you are thoroughly 
familiar with. ifs location. 

THE fACKENZIE BASIN 
What three large lakes are in the Mackenzie Basin ? 
What two large rivers flow into the western end of Lake 
Athabas-ka ? What river drains Lake Athabaska iato Great 



102 GEOGRAPHY 

Slave Lake? What river flows out of Great Slave Lake? 
Ia what ]irection does it flow? Locate ifs mouth. What 
meridiaa line (see page 7o) crosses its mouth Follow 
flfis meridian line south on the map, and show that the 
nmuth of the laekenzie iver is really much farther west 
than Vaneouver Is]and. 
The Maekenzie Iiver is iceI,ound in winter. Whv? 
In what part of the river will tbe ice break up first in 
si)ring? Why? If the ire bre«k up ami thc rixer bec,mes 
floodcd in the uppcr parts of ifs course while tbe ]ower 
part is still las[ iecbound, what is likely fo be the result? 
y ? 
If is said flat fle finest wheat in the world ean be 
grown in tbe l'cace Itiver eountrya pari of the Ma(.kenzie 
Basin. In his connecfion note that wbeat can be suc- 
cessfully grown as far north-west of Winnipeg as Win- 
nipeg is north-west of New York City. Read what you 
can about the great natural resources and wonderl pos- 
sibilifies of the Mackenzie Basin. 

TttE WIXIPEG BASIN 
General subjeet-matter only should be taught af this 
stage. A more detailed treatment will follow in the Senior 
(;rade of Form III. 

TII.E IISSISSII)PI BASIN 
(;eneral subjeet-matter only should be taught af this 
stage. A more detailed treatment will follow in the Senior 
Grade of Form I V. 

TIgE ST. L.¢WRE'CE BASIN 
General subject-matter only should be taught af this 
stage. A more detailed treatment will follow in the Senior 
Grade of Form III. 



SHORE FORMS OF NORTII AMERICA 103 

]_I UDSON BAY 
Consult the map and note tha le rivers that have 
their sour« in the Laurentian Highland flow into tlm St. 
Lawrence iver and Grea Lakes ïrom its southern slope, 
and into ]tudson and James Bays ïrom its northern slope. 
Is there a IIudson Bay Basin? Why do you think 
Try fo trace on the map the divide (" eigl:it of land 
tha separates the ]qudson Bay Basin ïrom the t. Law- 
ren« Basin on the south and ïrom tire Mackenzie Basin on 
the west. Repea-t the traeing until you are qui ïamiliar 
with he general trend of this so-ealled "heigh of land" 
If a basin includes the whole area drained into a coin- 
mon outlet, then the Winnipeg Basin should be included 
as part of the Hudson Bay Basin. Why? For teaching 
purposes, howeer, if will be better fo teach the former 
first as a basin Iff itself. With the exception of the Nelson 
ltiver, the names of the others flowing into Hudson and 
James Bars may be reserved for the Senior Grade, Form 
III. when Canada will be studied in greatcr detail. 

SHORE FORMS OF NORTH AMFA:tICA 
The Canada-United States international boundary line 
divides the North American ('ontinent into almo.t equal 
parts. Verify this statement by consulting the P, eference 
Tables in tlle Text-book. In what rc.¢pect does the coast- 
line of the northern half of the continent differ greatly 
from that of the southern hall? Thc former is much. 
broken; file latter i. c-mparatively unl)roken. What do 
these terres mean ? 
In regard fo the shore forms of North America, the 
map should be ruade the essential basis alike for the 
teacher in his teaching and for the pupils in their prepara- 
tion. The method of prescribing a list of names fo be 
$ 



104 GEOGRAPHY 

memorized is, as has a]ready been pointed out (page 95), 
hot a good one. 
A better method would be fo select a definite part, or 
unit, of the coast for study, and with the map before the 
class, require them fo make close observations of its various 
shore forms. The capes, bays, river mouths, etc., are care- 
fully traced in due order. Every pupil thus becomes, as 
it were, a geographical explorer, noting for himself the 
physical features of the area selected for study and fixing 
them upon his memory as they appear on the map. 
The teacher should aire af conducting the recitation in 
a bright, informal, and conversational mannerquestion- 
ing from the pupils ail that they may be expected to know 
from their own observations or reflection, and incidentally 
calling their attention fo details with which they are hot 
familiar but which will add interest and vividness to the 
subject. Instead of seeking to tïx a form, naine, or idea, 
in the memory in ifs isolation, aim rather at associating 
it with others, in the hope that the associated group will 
aid in the memorizing of ifs parts. 
As an illustration, take those shore forms associated 
with the Gulf of St. Lawrence: Locate the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence on the map. Who discovered this Gulf? Tell 
the story of ifs discovery. IIow did it get ifs naine? 
Iead Thomas D'Arcy 5IcGee's poem, Jacques Cartier, fo 
the class. What large river flows into the Gulf? Note ifs 
wide mouth. What island is af its mouth? What great 
lakes are drained by the St. Lawrence River? What two 
large islands are at the entrance of the Gulf? What strait 
separates Newfoundland from Labrador? When sailing 
out of the Gulf through the Strait of Belle Isle, what cape 
is on the left? What general shape has Newfoundland? 
What capes form ifs three corners ? Locate the "Banks 



CLIMATE OF NORTH AMERICA 

105 

of Newfoundland". What are they? For what are they 
famous? ]Iow are cod and lobsters caught and preparc,1 
for market ? What large island forms part of the Provincc 
of Nova Scotia? What strait separates if from the main- 
land? Locate Cape Breton on this island. What separates 
Cape Breton Island from Newfoundland? Cabot Strait. 
What Island Province lies in the southern part of the Gulf ? 
What strait separates if from the mainland ? Why are the 
shores of the Gulf of St. Lawrence so inaccessible during 
the winter months? Etc. 
Show pictures of this part of North America with ifs 
fisheries, icebergs, etc., fo heIp in developing interest. 
Drill thoroughly. 
Deal in a simi]ar way with other coast units. OnIy the 
more important shore forms should be taught in the Junior 
Grade of Fornl III. 

CLIMATE OF NORTH AMERICA 
The teaching of this topic .hould present no special 
difficulty provided the following general principles are 
carefully observed : 
1. ç)n]v "continental" notions of climate should be 
considered, as thc detailed gc%raphy of Canada, the 
United States, etc., will follow af a later stage. 
2. The question method should he followed thrugh- 
out. 
3. Insist upon the ma I) being freely used as the subject 
is being developed. 
The main factors that determine climate are: (1) tem- 
perature, (2) moi.ture, (3) winds. And these factors are 
affected by, (a) distance from the equator, (b) elevation 
above the sea-level, (c) distance from the sea, (d) direc- 



106 GEOGRAPHY 

tion of the mountain ranges, (e) character and direction 
of ocean currents, and (f) other less important causes. 
Apply these factors to the North American Continent 
chiefly by questioning the class before the map. 
Let the class remember that North Ameriea extends- 
through every possible variety of climate, from that of 
tropical Panama fo that of Arctic Greenland. Generally 
speaking, we may say tbat it is extremely hot in the far 
south and extremely cold in the far nortb. Local condi- 
tions, however, must be taken into aecount when estimat- 
ing what the climate of any particular region is. 
Note that the land rapidly absorbs heat in summer 
and rapidly radiates away heat in winter; that the ocean 
slowly absorbs heat in summer and slowly radiates away 
heat in winter. Tbat is, water is both heated and cooled 
much more slowly than land. ]tence, the interior of the 
continent is much botter in summer and much colder in 
winter tha corresponding places af the sea-sbore that are 
the saine distance from the equator. 
What rivers, seas, lakes, etc., are likely to be icebound 
during tbe winter? In the far north and on the Island of 
Greenland, winter is very severe and lasts most of the 
vear. What people lire in these cold regions? How are 
the Eskimos able fo keep themselves from freezing? 
In what regions of .Nrth America is the rainfall 
heaviest? At this point let the teacher sketch on the 
black-board a rainfall ma I) of North America. Use dif- 
ferent-coloured crayons fo indicate the regions of heavy, 
medium, and light rainfall. Locate the two regions of 
least rainfall (desert conditions). Consult he rainfall 
map of the world on page 40 of the Text-book. Require 
the pupils for seat work fo make a similar ma l) of orth 
America as a review test. 



NATURAL RESOURCES OF NORTH AMERICA 107 

Remember that rainfall is dependent upon winds. A 
brief consideration, therefore, of the principal winds of 
North America at this stage should help the pupils fo 
understand the continental rainfall better. In this con- 
nection consider briefly the l'revailing Westerlies fr, m the 
Pacifie Ocean, the more variable winds from the Atlantic 
Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, and the Trade-winds in the 
South. The Atlantic coast, especially from Newfoundland 
fo Cape Cod, has quite a heavy rainfall and much fog. 
Speaking generally, the rainfall is heaviest on the Pacific 
and Atlantic coasts and diminishes toward the interior of 
the continent. 
The ('ourse of Study reserves a more detailed con- 
sideration of these winds for the Senior C, rade of Form 
IV. 
NATURAL RESOURCES OF NORTH AMERICA 
The chief natura] resources of North America may be 
summarized as follows: 
l. Vegetation, which is dependent upon temperature, 
rainfall, and character of soil. 
2. Animals, which are dependent upon vegetation. 
3. Minerals. 
VEGETATION 
North America bas such an enormous area and such a 
great variety of climate that ifs vegetation varies greatly. 
Why is vegetation lackinz in the regions of unbroken 
snow and ice? South of ths is an mmense region called 
Tundra, growing mosses, shrubs, and stunted trees. Why 
cannot trees grow there? The soil is a]ways frozen, except 
af the very surface, which thaws out for a few brief weeks 
in summer. Trees such as we bave here cannot grow be- 
cause their roots cannot penetrate the frozen sub.oil in 
order to get nouri.hment. The hrief summer, however, is 



108 (]EOGRAPHY 

warm enough to enable some grasses and small-flowering 
plants to grow rapidly. Some of these plants produce 
berries which, after ripening, are preserved in the snow, 
and thus arc availab]e as food for the birds when they 
arrive iii the spring. 
Show that on the southern edge of the Tundra region 
ïorests begin to appear, al first seanty and with stunted 
trees; but that further south they are eomposed of mag- 
nifieent forests of pines, spruee, and other eonifers. What 
is pulpwood? From what trees is il obtained? 
Draw from the class that wherever il is warm enough 
and wet enough they may expect to find forests. Refer 
fo the maps showing the rainfall and note where the wet 
regions are. These are the districts where the forests are 
to be found. The kind of trees found in these forests 
varies with the latitude (distance north of the equator). 
What kind of trees grow in the more temperate regions? 
]lere are f,und "mixed woods" Naine some of the 
"' hard wo«ds" of the temperate regions. Tropical forests 
contain el«»ny, mahogany, logwood, rose-wood, etc.; these 
are ealled cabinet woods or dye woods, according to the use 
that is ruade of them. Shade or colour the forest area. of 
North America on a blaek-haard map; then cover the map 
and require the pupils, for seat work, fo draw similar maps 
on paper: uncover the blaek-board map and compare re- 
sults. (Consult map on page 51 of the Text-book.) 
The 'rass ]ands are the next most extensive areas of 
natural vegetation. Grass flourishes well in regions that 
are subject fo extremes of climate, for il grows quick]y, 
and a short, hot summer will bring il fo maturity. Why 
is there littIe grass in forest rezions? Why are there few 
trees where there is much grass? For the plrpose of 
showing the location of the as. lands you may, therefore, 



NATURAL RESOURCES OF NORTH AMERICA 109 

use the forest map which you bave just ruade. In many 
areas there is hot sufficient rain for ïorest gTowth, but 
there is sufiîcient for the gTowth of gTass (see map, page 
82, Text-book). In Mexico and Central America there 
are no extensive areas of grass lands, ex«ept on the higher 
plateaus. In areas of little or no rainfall, desert conditions 
prevail. Mark these districts also on vour map. 
Make another blank map of North America showing 
the boundaries of the countries and insert the names of 
the ïollowing plants in the districts where they are grown : 
Wheat, corn, oats, barley, rice, sugar-cane, cotton, tobacco, 
hardv fruits (apples, etc.), tropical fruits (banana.% 
oranges, pineapp]es, spices, etc.). (Consult raap on page 
.81 of the Tcxt-book.) 
ANIMALS 
Why does the north produce the best fur-bearing ani- 
mais? What is the most important fur-bearing animal? 
:Fur-bearing seals are found on the Priby}of Is}ands and 
on the coasts of Alaska. There are seal fisheries off the 
toasts of Newfoundland and Labrador, but the seals are 
taken for their oil and skins, and their fur is of no value. 
What other animais are found in the northern seas that 
are of commercial value ? 
Sheep, cattle, and other domestic animals have been 
introduced into mo.t parts of the continent. Note that 
sheep feed on the dry plains and hillsides, while cattle are 
round in the lower, richer, ancl warmer areas. Why? 
What conditions necessarv fo suc«essful stock-raising are 
found in the Great Central Plain? The climate is suit- 
able, ass and water are abundant, land is fairly cheap, 
and transportation is easv. 
The food fishes ïound in the toast waters of the 
northern hall of Xorth America are of gTeat value. What 



IiO (EOCRAPHY 

are the principal food fishes found in these waters? What 
natural conditions exist in northern waters favourable fo 
the production of fish? (Sec Text-book, page 94.} 
]IINERALS 
North America is rich in minerals. In what kind oî 
districts are minera]s usua]]v found ? Why are they found 
in hilly or mountainous districts and not in fiat, alluvial 
plains ? 
Use blank maps again. Shade the areas where coal is 
found. Locate, by writing their names on the map, the 
areas where iron, gold, siloer, coppcr, mincral t,il, and gas 
are foun,1. Why are districts where coal and iron are 
foun,l in close proxiluity likely, fo bCCOlllC important 
t.entres of industry ? Naine and locate such a centre, • The 
deposits of nickel in Ontario are the richest in the world. 
Why is coal round extensively underlying the Great 
i'entral Plain? Use a blank map fo indicate where the 
above-named minerals are found. (Sec page 82 of the 
Text-book.) 
Other resources that may be briefly considered are 
good harbours, useful lakes and rivers, and water-powers. 

DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION 

Locate on the map the districts where the population 
is most sparse. Are these districts hot or cold, fertile or 
barren? In what regions is the population dense? Are 
these regions, on the whole, temperate or tropical? Are 
they grass lands, forest lands, or mineral areas? Does 
excessive tropical vegetation encourage or hinder a large 
population? Why? 



INDUSTRIES OF NORTH AMERIC& 

111 

INDUSTRIES OF NORTH AMERICA 
In Canada the Ttmdra region is called the " Barren 
Lands-'. What does this naine indicate? The people who 
lire there hae hot much choice of occupation. Why hot? 
They cannot farm. Why not? llow do they ,nake their 
living ? 
What are thê possible industries in a temperate ïorêst 
area ? What are thê areas wherê thê agricultural industries 
(grain-growing, eotton-raising, .tock-raising. dairying, 
fruit-growing, etc.) are carried on? Question thê clas. 
about the industries earried on in commotion with the 
toast waters. 
In order that manuïactures may bê successfully carried 
on, what conditions are nêcêssary? There mu,*t bê power 
availablê to drivê machinery, good transportation ïacilities, 
a climatê suitablê ïor hard work, and food nmst bê 
abundant and «hêap. Locatê thê principal districts wherê 
manufactures are carried on and show to what êxtênt thê 
above ïacilitiês are available. What effect bas tbê great 
European market upon the location of North American 
industries? How is thê opening oï thê Panama Canal 
likely to affect the induries of Western America ? 
Do not consider specia] manufactures ai this stage. 
They will be considered ai a later stage, when the countries 
of North America are taken in detail. 

TRANSPORTATI'ON AND COMMERCE 
Consider in a general way: 
(1) Internal trade, with routes 
(2) External trade, with routes 
(3) Commercial centres, with reason for location 
and growth. 



CHAPIER X 

FORM III, SENIOR GRADE 

DETAILS OF THE COURSE 

8Ulq» ZIO0» TARS» ETC. 
The Sun : 
One of the stars; distance from earth; source of heat, 
]ight, and energy; attraction force; influence on lire. 
The Planets : 
Namcs, motions, are stars shining with reflectcd light, 
"" ln.rning" and " evening " stars, the earth a star, recog- 
nition of tlae brighter planet-stars in the sky. 
The 5Ioon : 
A cold, dead world; shines with reflected light, rota- 
tion around the earth, lunar month, rime of rising, why 
later each night; phases, e.xplanation. 
Comets : 
Nature, appearance. 
Stars : 
A fcw genêralizations only: are other suns, source of 
light, different co]ours, cause of "twinkling", distance 
from earth, the "Milky Way", recognition of North Star, 
Big Dipper, Little Dipper, and a few other prominent 
stars and constellations. 

Meteors : 
Shooting stars---cause of light. 
(eography Reader : " Coral Islands ", page 37 ; 
soon Weather ", page 49. 
112 

"Mon- 



CANADA 11 

For hiuts on the teaehing of the fallowing topics, sec 
"Suggestions for Lessons", Chapter XI: The Solar Svs- 
tem, Tbe Sun, Tbe Planers, The Moon, The Stars, Comets, 
Meteors. 

CANADA 

1. Review Canada as a whole and 0ntario in dctail, as 
outlined for the .lunior Grade of Fonn 1 
2. The other Provinces in considerable detail, the Terri- 
tories, Newfoundland. The lesson on Nova S,.otia 
(see page 125) will suggest a methad of treatmel,t. 
3. Consider, in the light of the detailed study of the in- 
dividual Provinces, Calm,la as a I}on,ini,,n, enlphasiz- 
ing partieularly tl,e commercial aspect of the sul,jeet. 
In eounection with the c,,mmercial geography of 
Canada, review briefly the home industries as outlined for 
Form Il. Determine, if possible, how these industries 
happen fo be loeated where they are. In what ways are 
they importaut fo the home loeality? Have tbey any im- 
portance fo other parts of tbe country or fo the world 
abroad? If so, show how and trace thcir pro,lucts fo 
places of consumption or distribution. Use maps f-r this 
purpose. Study lines of tran.portation. Why does 
the ],ome locality produce all things needed f-r consnmp- 
tion there? Show wby different localities have different 
industries. 
After an introductory study of home industries, con- 
sider further the great industries of the Dominion. The 
following list is suggested : 

(1) Agricultural produce: fruits, grains, flour, meal. 
(2) Anilnals and their products: bacon, cheese, cattle, 
hides and skins, furs. 
(3) Fisheries' produce: salmon, codfish, etc. 



114 GEOGRAPHY 

(4) Forest products: lumber, square tituber, pulp- 
wood, wood-pulp. 
(5) Mineral produce: coal, trou, gold, copper, silver, 
nickel, lead, asbestos. 
(6) Manufactures: wood, iron, leather, etc. 
Iii the study of each of these industries: 
(1 } Locate the region of production. 
(2) Study carefully file natural physical features and 
file clinlate of the region. 
(3} PMure the lire of the people engaged in the 
industry. 
(l) Trace the general steps in file production and 
preparati'oa for market. 
(5) I Je,tare imp«,rtant centres of production, manu- 
facture, and trade. 
(6) Tra,.e the movenlent of produets fo market, study- 
ing carefully he routes taken. 
(7} Determine why products go fo various markets. 
(8) ('ompare, when possible, present nlethods of pro- 
duction and transportation with earlier 
methods. ,qeek causes for the differences. 
(9) Consider the importance of the industry fo our 
own country and to the world af large, both 
from the standpoint of money value and from 
its influence upon the happiness and comfort of 
the peop]e. 
These industries should be taken as types. Show how 
and why the Government. in some instances, is aiding the 
dcvelopment of some of these industries, through irriga- 
tion, experimental stations, fisl hatcheries, forestry, fish 
and gaine laws, etc. 
Ail places mentioned in conne,tion with the study of 
an industry, such as province, cities, prairies, lakes, 



THE MOTHER-COUNTRY IN GENERAL 115 
river.q, and canais, shculd be definitely located. ["se pic- 
turcs, picture post-cards, and materia]s fo i]]ustrate tbe 
subject-matter being studied. 

TH/ï: PI/O'INt'ES OF TIlE DO3IiNIG:: 

Provinces : 
1. Ontario 
2. Quebec 
3. Xew Brunswick 
4. Xova g«-otia 
5. Prince Edward IsJano 
6. Manitoba 
7. Saskatchewap 
8. Alberta 
9. British Columbia. 

Territories : 
1. Yukon. 9. 3_raekenzie. 
For hints Oll the teaehing of a Province, see lesson 
on Nova Seotia, ('hapter XI. 
Newfoundland. 
Newfoundland: Sec Geo._raphy Reader. pages 64-6. 
South Ameriea: Sec Geography leader, page.q 224-64. 
Asia: Sec Ge<,graphy Reader. pages 350-414. 

THE MOTHER-COUNTRY IN GENERAL 
1. ('ountries included. 
2. Size : 
Compare with areas in Canada. 
3. Location- 
Direction frora other European counfries and 
from Canada. 
4. Surface. 



116 

GEOGRAPHY 
5. ('limate : 
l',ainfall 
l'emperaturc: Compare with saine latitude in 
North America; reasons for difference. 
6. Occu)ations : 
(1) .oEgriculture and grazing: 
Need for aq'icultural products 
Crops raised 
Adantages for agriculture 
Importance of stock-raising 
Conditions favourable f.r graz[g. 
(?.) Fishing : 
Wbere carried on 
Why an important industry. 
(3) Mining : 
],.cation of principal coal-fieics 
Where iron and tin are found 
!mportance of mining industry 
[-ses ruade of coal and iron. 
(t) Manufacturing : 
(a) Wool]ens : 
Leeds and Bradford the centres (York- 
.hire) 
Kinds of woollen goods manufactured 
.k«lvantages for manufacturing 
What becomes of manufactured goods. 
(b) Cottons : 
Manche.¢ter the centre (Lancashire) 
..dvantages for manufacturing 
Where manufactured goods are sent. 
(c' Iron and seel: 
Glasgow, Sheffield, Birmingham, chier 
cent res 



THE IIOTttER-COUNTRY IN GENERAL 117 

Kinds of goods manufactured 
Advantages of each centre 
What becomes of manufactured good». 
(d) Linens : 
Belfast the centre 
Advantages for manufacturing 
How linen is ruade 
Wbere if is sent. 
(e) Shipbuilding, potteries, carpets, 
rime permits. 
7. Commerce : 
(1) Imports : 
(a) Foods 
(b) Raw materia|s. 
(?) Exports : 
Manufactured goods. 
(3) Chief ports: 
London, Liverpool, 
Belfast, Bristol, 
ttull, Newcastle. 
8. The people: 
Nationalities 
Characteristics 
C, overnment 
Chief Overseas Dominions and colonies. 
Europe: Sec Geography P, cadcr, page. 265-348. 
Africa: Sec (-;eography Rcader, pages 43.q-509. 

etc. as 

Southampton, Glasgow. 
Plymouth, Portsmouth, 
Locate each on map. 

THE BRITISH EMPIRE 

The Empire and ifs component parts. Sec the Text- 
book, pages 250-258. 
Sec Geoaphy :Reader, "Australasia", etc., page t15; 
"' The British Empire ", page 510. 



('IIAPTER 

FORM III, SENIOR fRADI; 

SUGGESTIONS FOR LSSONS 

THE SOLAR SYSTEM 

TJiv, s,lar system, of wbicb our earth forms a part, 
c,,nsists of (a) tbe s«, which is the centre of the system, 
(b) t]ic planet.', which rcvolve around the sun at various 
,]iS/all(:Cs froln if, (c) the moons of the planers, which re- 
voh'e around them, and (d) thc comets, which also re- 
volve around the sun, but i: a more irregular way than 
the planers do. Draw on thc black-board a diagram of 
the s«.lar sysh.m illusiratin tbe ab--e parts eomposing 
the .v.tem. (See diagram, Ottario High ,'chool Physical 
leography, page 320.) 

TtIE SUN 
T]le sun is rea]Iy one of the " fixed stars", but as if 
is so near o us, if looks very, very much larger than the 
Ot]ler stars that are very mueh farther away. How far 
awav is it? (Sec lesson on '" The Sun". Chapter V.) The 
diameter f the sun is more than one hundred rimes 
gr«.ater than that of the earth. If is a great ball of in- 
len.e]y hot fire. (-Ireat "spots » are sometimës seen on 
the face of /he sun: these seem fo be great hoIes, some- 
rimes with more than enough room for our earth fo fa]] 
into. If is hot thought fo be a solid body Iike our earth; 
it is more Iikely to be a gaseous or liquid body. If it 
were hot for the heat, light, and energy that we get from 
he sun, our earth would be a cold, dead world. 
118 



THE SOLAR SYSTEM: PLANETS 119 

THE PLANlT8 
The planers iii the solar system are eight in nunlber. 
Their names, iu the order of their nearness to the SUll, 
are Mereury, Venus, Eartho Mars, Jupiter, ,'5_'aturiJ, 
Uranus, and Neptune. Mereury is the smallest of the 
planets--mueh snlaller than the earth; .lupiter is the 
]argest and is more than 14t)o rimes as large as «»tir earth. 
Mercur.y has the shortest orbit or pathvay round the sun 
and takes 88 days only fo lnake Olle revolution ; the Earth 
requires 3t;5:1 days. Neptune ]las the greatest or],it 
requires 165 years to make olle revolution ab«»ut the sun. 
IIenee, one year on Mereury is about one quarter as lonz 
as ours, while Neplune's year is 165 tinles h,nzer. 
many years old would vou be if you lied on Moreury? 
If Neptune bas four sea.ons in its year, a we bave, how 
long does its winter last ? 
AIl the planet., exeept Mercury and Venus, have 
moons: the earth ha,¢ one nmon" Saturn is known te, have 
nine. Ail the »ther planers h»ok like stars whon seen 
the earth af nizht- and, if viewed from an»ther planer, 
out Earth wouhl al.o be a star. The planer-stars, how- 
eer, are hot true stars, but shine with liht refleeted from 
the sun. In thi.q respect thev are ]ike our moon. The 
planer-stars bave a quiet, steady, and hot a twinklinz. 
light. Mercurv an[1 Venus are often seen as the "even- 
ing star", the flrst star fo appear after sunset" (,r as the 
'" morning star", the last star soen shining before sun- 
rise. Seek assistance in ]ocating them. 
THE 
The moon ha.q no heat or light of ifs own and hence 
shines by light refleeted from the sun. 
Review the facts learned bv observation in a previous 
,'lass (sec page 42), and fell the class that the changes 
9 



120 GEOGRAPHY 

which take place in the appearance of the moon are called 
tbe Phases of lhe Moon. By means of a ball and a lighted 
candle, and also by diagrams on the black-board, establish 
the causes «»f these pbases as 
(1) Whcn thc moon, on its j.rnc)" round the earth, 
c,mcs betwcen the carth and the sun, the illumiuated half 
of the n«mn is turncd toward thc sun and the dark hall 
¢,»ward the earth. Af this time thcre is 
(2)  hcn the moo has i,assed a little to one side of 
a slraight line j,,ining Ihc carth and the sun, we see the 
c,lge vf the moon lighted up by the sun. This is called 
the New Moon. 
(3) When lhe ntoot has moved cm t a point where 
the straight line joining the earth and the moon is af 
right angles fo that j,»ining the earth and sun, we see 
one half of the moon's face lighted up. This phase 
called its Fir.,'t Quarter. 3y so called? 
() When the earth is between the sun and moon, we 
see the whole face of the moon lighted up by the sun. 
This is the Ftll Moon phase. 
(5) When the mo«»n has m«,-ed round the eartb to a 
],oint opp,site fo that of the First Quarter. if is again 
in a position where only one hall of ifs face is lighted up. 
Thi phaae is known as the Tbird Q,arer or Lxt Q«arer. 
Whv so ca]]ed? (See diagram, page 324. Otario Higb 
.'cbool P]y.¢ical Geograp]y. ) 
Xote that the new moon crescent is the lighted edge 
f one side of tbe moon. while the 
the lighted edge of tbe opposite side. n which side of 
ll,e lighted edg is thc sun in each case? N'ote the saine 
phenomena af the times of First and Last Quarters. 
If takes about 29] davs for the moon to journey round 
the earth once. at naine is givcn fo this interval 



THE SOLAR SYSTEM: STARS 121 

lime? Ilow many lunar months are there in one year? 
Does the moon turn on its axis as the earth d.cs? W]ml 
proof have you of this? We know that the re.on always 
presents the saine face to the earth, because the saine 
markings (" man in the moon") are alwavs seen on 
ïace; these dark markings are prohably sha«]ows cast bv 
mountaius. If a pupil walks round a chair by keeping 
his face toward it. show that he himself has actually 
made one complote turn. Apply this to thc case of the 
moon and show that it must turn on ifs axis ç»nce every 
lunar month. 
The m«»«»n i» approximately 5[ minutes later each 
nighf. What is the cause of this? If the m-«»n wcr«. 
stationary, if would rise alwavs at the saine tine. A» it 
is moving in he saine directiç»n in which the earth 
rotating, an«l as it makcs a o»mplete revo]ution round 
the earth in about 29 days, therefore it must make 
or  of its round in a day. Hence, the interval of time 
hetween two successive risings of the mc«n must bc thc 
rime required by tbe earth fo make 1  turng, that is, 
apl)roximatcly 24 hours and 5(t minutes. 
The moon is a cold, dead world and pr«,bab]y c«»ntais 
no atmosphere, no water, and ne» lifc. lts surface is 
barren rock. $Ieteors must batter the moon freely, as thcrc 
is no atmosphere to burn them up as they fall. The moon 
is a silent world, as there is no air fo vibrate to produce 
sounds. 
THE STARS 
If we look above us on any clear Ç]av or nigh L we sec 
what appears o be a great blue vault, or dome, which we 
call the sky. Wha[ is the naine of the circular line where 
the earth and sky appear fo meet? AI niTht [he sky 
literally filled with bright objects called stars. 



122 GEOGRAPHY 

Altbougb the stars are so very far away, many in- 
tercsting things hase bccu learned about thcm. AstrolJo- 
mcrs tel] us that evcry shiniug star is in reality a great 
I»lazing sun, and that many of thenl are supp-ed fo hase 
other worlds spiuning ar«»ud them, just as tbe earth ou 
whieb we lise spins arouud our sun. These worlds are, 
however, too far away for us lo see them even with the 
aid of teleseopes. ]Iow many of sueb worlds there are. 
h«»w large thev are, what kind of people (if any) lise on 
them. we hase no means of knowing. It is a wonderfui 
thought, is it hot ? 
Astron«,m«.rs are al»le to measure the distam.e between 
us and nmny ofthe stars. Ail of them are very, very far 
away. We know that light traeis erv fast186,400 
toiles a second. At this rate it takes the light of the sun 
eight minutes lo reaeh the earth. The nearest .star is so 
far awav that a ry of light from it takes about four years 
lo reach us. If this star were sudden]y to beeome ex- 
tinisbed, we wou]d stiil eoutinue fo see its light for four 
vears longer. L,»ok for the Pole Star; if takes nearly hall 
a eenturv f,»r its ]izht fo reach us. Find the Pleiades 
group of stars; tbese are so far awav that the light we see 
shining from them has been on tbe way for more than 
four bundrefl years. Indeed, other stars are so far away 
that it takes flmusands of vears for their ligbt fo reaeh us. 
If you walch the stars ai night, ynu will be able fo 
observe that, like the sun and tbe moon, they are appar- 
ently moving. In what direction do they seem fo more? 
They are net reallv moving fr¢)m east fo west aeross the 
sky; they are stationary in the saine sense hat the sun is. 
Whv then do they seem lo us fo more aeross the sky? 
The stars are of different ages. Like us, they are 
gradually getting older. Some star are shining with 



THE SOLAR SYSTEM: STARS 123 

white or blue light; these are the younger stars. As they 
grow older they become yellow, like our sun" and when 
they get still older, they turn red in colour. Many stars 
finally lose their heat and light and become cold and dark. 
(f course, when they reach this condition we cannot see 
them any longer. Observe the stars on some clear uight 
fo see if you can find stars of different colour.--white, 
blue, yellow, red. All true stars "twinkle". Whv? If 
there was no atmosphere, the stars would not twinkle. 
You should be able fo locate in the sky a few of the 
more important stars and constellations. Final the MiAk!/ 
Il'a!/; it is a great white band across the sky. It is ma,le 
up of so many stars, and they are so far awav that w- 
cannot see them distinctly; we see their diffu.ed light. 
It is this diffused light that gives the Milky Way its 
peeuliar appearance. 
Locatê the North cr Pole Star- if is almost stationary, 
and for this reason makes a good "guide star". There 
are othêr stars in the northern sky that never set; they 
seem to revove rond the Pole Star without getting below 
he horizon. The following constellations may be observed 
in thi connection: The Great Bear (or the Big Dipper), 
the Little Bcar (or the Little Dipper), the Dragon, and 
Cassiopeia's ('hair. The relation «»f the " Big Dipper" to 
the Pole Star is shown in the diagram on page 12, of the 
Text-book. 
The principal stars in the winter sky are Orion, Sirius 
(the Great Dog Star, the most beautiful star in the winter 
sky), the Pleiades, Castor and Pollux (the Twin Stars), 
etc. In the summer sky will be found legulus, Arcturus, 
the h"orthern Crown, Vega (the brightest summer star), 
Antares, the Northern Cross, Altair, etc. If is toward 
Vega that out sun and ifs attendant planers, including the 



124 GEOGRAPHY 

earth, are moving af the approximate rate of 800 toiles a 
minute. Do hot rest satisfied until you can identify the 
above-named stars. (Read ('hapter XIX. OMrio High 
,','<hool Phy.i«al Geograply. ) 

COI ETS 
('omet.« are probably white-hot mas.es of ga., which 
more swiftly toward the sun, go round if, aud then rush 
awav again. They are usually recognized by a /ail of 
light. A ]arte cornet is quite beautifu], with its bright 
head and long flaring rail. The rail is a]wavs on the side 
awav from the sun, and sometimes it is longer han the 
,listance between here and the sun. The naine cornet is 
drived from an old wt»r,l that meant " h)n.,..,-haired". 
Whv wa this naine giveu t, it? (Consult the ()ttario 
Iii:lb ,','ch ool l'h!lsi«tl Gcoyral,h y. page 332. } 

:METEORS 
Floatin through .¢l»ace beyond the earth's atmosphere 
are }»odics which, if is sui)pose& xere once heated and 
lumin,,us: but, having lost their heat and light, are no 
cold. dark. ro«k-like masses. When they hal)pen to'come 
near enou.,.,d fo the earth fo be influenced by gravitation, 
their great speed carries them so swiftly through the 
atmosphere that the friction developed heats them until 
thev glow and burn. A the blazing ma.s rushes through 
the upper air, if looks like a streak of light. If is this 
streak of light that is called a meteor or « sh0oting star". 
Bv waving rapidly back and forth a stick of wood with a 
glowing end a very good representation of a shooting 
star mav be obtained. 
Usually these mêteors burn up before they reach the 
surface of tbe earth: oceasionallv, however, the residue of 



NOVA SCOTIA 125 

a very large one may strike the earth and bury itself in 
the soil. When such a one is f,mnd, it ]ooks like a dark 
mass of stone; it is then «.alled a meteorite. _M«.tecrites. 
when found, are regarded as curiosities and are ,,ften 
1,1aeed in muscums. (.qec the Ontario High ,%'hool 
Phy«ical Geogrophy, page 333.) 

NOVA SCOTIA 
Th]s lesson s intcnded fo sug.est pfinciples il,ai mav 
be used with advantaze in thc teachin. of anv particular 
province or country. Nova Scotia is chc,.en in prcference 
fo Ontario as if is a much smaller and silupler unit, and 
the method illustrated i. n-t s« lik.lv to },e oh.«.ur,d 1,v 
the use of a greatcr mass «»f detail.. 
The teacher will observe that the .ul,jeot-matter 
this lê.,son is ,lcalt with undêr certain t«Tios arrangd 
a certain order, as fo]]ows: 1. Location; 2..qize; 3. 
Physical featurcs (¢urface, coasts, drainage, soil); 1. 
('limate; 5. Natural res«,ur(.es; 6. ]n,luctries; 7. Trans- 
portation; 8. Trade and ('«,mmerce, ê\p«rts and imports: 
9. Pcople and Government; 10. Cities and chief towns. 
A little consideration will show the advanta,-,e fo be 
gained by teaêhing the fopics in the ortier indicated. 
1. The location of a country with reference fo 
latitude, together with ifs ]and and water features, drain- 
ag, etc., pI'ovides most of the data f«r estimating the 
charactêr of the climate. 
2. The physical features (surface, soil, drainage), to- 
gether with the climate, determine in large measure the 
natural resources. 
3. Similarly, physical features, climate, and natural 
resources form the basis for transportation, trade and 
e«mmerce, exports and imports, and g«,wth of cities .llld 



16 GEOGRAPHY 

towns; the fact should be emphasized that physical causes 
largely determine the life and occupations of a people. 
][ence, if would be illogical fo teach c]imate before 
location and physiçal features; natural resourccs before 
climate; industries bef«,re natural resources; trade and 
«.mmnerce before natural resources and industries, etç. 
By observing such principles as these in the teaching of 
geography, the teacher is training the pupil fo associatc 
causes with their consequences and consequences with their 
causes. Bv so doing, he hot only arouses a greater interest 
in the subject, but lightens the burden on the pupil's 
memorv by appealing fo his reasoning and refiective 
powers. 
Belote begiuning the lêsson, the teachêr is recom- 
mended fo make an outline map of Nova Scotia on thê 
blaek-board, fo be filled in as the lesson is being devêloped, 
and also fo bang the wall map belote the class for con- 
stant reference. Unless a good black-board outline can 
be ruade it may be dispensed with and only the wall map 
used; a poorly-made blaek-board map may, for obvious 
reasons, prove worse than none af all. 

LOCATION 

What direction is Xova Seotia from New :Brunswick? 
Wha't three bodies of watêr wash ifs shorês? What is 
the latitude of ifs most southêrly point? Compare this 
with the latitude of Toronto. What is the latitude of is 
most northerly point? Compare this with the latitude 
of Quebec City. What country in Western Europe is in 
the saine latitude? What is the most southêrly point in 
Canada? (Point Pêlee) Does any other part of Canada 
cxtend farthêr êast than Nova Scotia? What is if? 



NOVA SCOTIA 127 

. SIZE 
What is the area of the land surface of Ontario ? What 
is the area of Nova Scotia? How many provinces the 
size of Nova Scotia could be carved out of ()utario? 
('ompare the size of Nova Scotia with that of New Brun.- 
wick. It is ahnost as large as Belgium and I[,dlan,1 l-,nt 
together, and if is hall the .ize of New York State. What 
i. the length of Nova Scotia? Its width? 

3. PHYSI('AL FEATURES 
Surface : 
What is the general shape of Xova Scotia? What 
forms the main axis of the Province? (A mountain 
ridge, or watershed, running from the north-east fo the 
south-west.) h'-ote another mountain ridge running in 
an east-west dircction from Cape ('hignect,-, fo Canso 
Strait. Do these ranges determine the shape of the 
country? In what wav? How. too. d,» they determine 
the general slopes? What is the relation of these s}opes 
to the direction of the rivers? Why? llow would you 
a«eount for the V-shape,1 depression occupied bv tbe 
waters of Minas Channel, Minas Basin, and Col-,equid 
Bay? Draw an outline map of the Bay of Fundy and ifs 
arms. 

The Atlantic ,qlope: 
About how wide is this s]ope? (Average width is 
lwenty-one toiles.) Describe the surface of this slope. 
Why is if so rough and broken? (If is an old weafhered 
highland of hard rock.) What portions are covered with 
soil? (Chiefly the narrow river valleys) What remark- 
able feature is noticed along ?he Atlantic shore-liue? 
Account for the presence of so nmny harbours. (They 



128 GEOGRAPHY 

are submerged mouths of rivers.) Naine a few of the 
largest harbours. ]Iow would you accout for the origin 
of tbe Strait of ('anse? Itow large is if? (Length, four- 
teen and ont hall mlles; wi«lth, three quarters of a mlle; 
«lepth, nowhêre less than ninety feet.) What bars ,loes 
if conm,«.t? (Sec illustration on page 96 of the Text- 
bock.) 
The I;ay of Fund)" Slope: 
ç'omi)are this slope with the Atlantic s|ope as te sur- 
face, rivers, shores, etc. Why bas-the Bay of Fundy eom- 
paratively few harbours? Is if because thêre is a second- 
arv mountain rid.e (tbe North Mmntains) runnin. 
]arallcl te, and close te, the coast? Why de you think se? 
What pro,luctive val]ey is immcdiately s-uth of the North 
M,.untains? What break in these mountains a]lows the 
lower part of the Annapolis Yalley te fill witb water? 
What naine is given te lhis sheet of water? Are tbese 
N'orth Mountais r:sponsib]e, toc, for Diby N*eek, and 
St. )lary's llay? Why de vou think se? What cape 
forln. the eastern end of this range? 
What ride pllenomcm are seen in the Bay of Fundv 
and espeeia]]y in its upper arms? How ]igh ¢]o thesc 
tides ri.e? Where de thev fise highest? Why? :Point 
,ut tbe effect of the.e hih rides upon the low-lying shores 
f Mina. Ba.in. What effect have these rides upon the 
naxization of rivers flovig into the Bar and its arms? 
Explain. What happens te ships when the ride is out of 
the rivers ? 
The Gulf of St. Lawrence .]ope: 
ç]e ]and s]opes gent]y te the Gulf and the shores are 
c,mparatively loxv. As on the Atlantie slope, -lat i. the 
relation of the harbours te the rivers ? What is the largest 
ad best harbour? 



NOVA SCOTIA 129 

Cape Breton IsIand: 
Which side of the I.land ba. the mo.t 1,roken shore- 
line? Why? What lake is there in the interior of the 
Island? ls if salt «,r fresh? Whv? Naine tw, ,««1 
harbours on the Islan,1. Locate theln on tbe map. 
What island is out in the 3_tlantie abaut ".'m mlles 
east of lla]ifax? Describe ils surfwe. Whv is it so 
dangerous as fo bc ealled the" [lraveyard of the Atlantic "? 
Drainage : 
Into what thi-ee general slopes is the drainage .y.tem 
of Nova ,qeotia diided What are the ehief (.hara«teris- 
tics of thc rivers (,f the Atlantie slope? Why are thev 
short? Why arc there so manv? Whv «la thev hot unite 
and forln a large river? Arc thcy navigal,le? Vhy ll)|? 
Of what use are their mouths? 
Where is the Almapolis Valley? l;ctwecn what 
mountain ridges dues if lie? What river drains the valley 
u,ward the west? Into what Basin dr, es the Annapolis 
River flow? What conneets this Basin with the Bay of 
Fundv? What river flows castward through the vallev? 
(Cornwallis River) Int«, what body of water dr, es it 
flow? Naine a river flowing into Col,equid Bar. Locate 
the rivers on the wall map. 
I: the navi.uation of rivers flowing into the (;ulf of 
St. Lawrence helped bv the rides fo tbe saine extent? 
Whv hot? In what respeets are the river. fl«,wing into 
the Gulf of St. Lawrenee like those of the Atlantie slope? 
Whv are the Cape Breton rivers so unimportant? 
Rail : 
If Nova ,qeotia is a rockv hi..,zhland plateau in the 
process of bêin.g worn down. in what condition is nmst of 
it. .urfaee likely fo be ? Where is most of it. arable land 



130 GEOGRAPHY 

round? Why? Why are the low-lying lands around the 
shores of Minas Basin partieularly fertile? 

4. CLIMATE 
The general influences that modify climate are lati- 
tude, e]cvation, proximity to the sea, ocean currents, winàs, 
rainfal], etc. tlow many of these influences apply to 
Ne»va S«.otia? In what way? Why has Nova Scotia a 
maritime climate? Ilow does this affeet the rainfall? 
What two ocean currents influence its elimate? In what 
wav? Nova 8eotia extends through the saine latitude as 
the country lying between Toronto and Quebee City; 
--mpare the climates of the two districts. Which is sub- 
ject to the greater extremes? Why? Why is Nova Seotia 
more subjeet to fogs than Ontario? What influence has 
the North Mountain ridge upon the c]imate of the Ann- 
npolis Valles? Why? What is the average yearly rain- 
fall of Soya 8cotia? (See the Text-book.) What is the 
rainfall in Ontario? (Thirty to forty Juches) What 
makes the elimate of Nota Scotia so inrigorating? 

5. NATURAL RESOURCES 

Naine at least four of the chief natural resources of 
Nova .%.otia. What connection bave they with the leading 
industries of the Province? I]lustrate. More detaded 
information wil] be supplied when the various industries 
are uuder consideration. 

6. INDUSTIIIES 
Agriculture : 
Why is azriculture hot earried on so extensively as in 
Ontario and the Prairie Provinces? Where are fhe chier 
aricultura| distriets of Nova Scotia situatec]. Aecount 



NOVA SCOTIA 131 

for this. What conditions are favourable fo the growth 
of hay and root-crops? What industries depend upon 
these crops and upon grazin. for their success? Give a 
list of the grains grown in Nova Scotia. 
Fruit : 
What part of Nova Scotia is famous f«»r its fruit? 
What are the conditions favourabIe te» fruit-growing in 
this Yalley? Naine the chief fruits 7rown and exported. 
What uses are ruade of cold st«,ra.e warehouses in con- 
nection with this industrv? What factors are favourabIe 
fo the export of fruit ? What advantages has Ne»va Sco[a 
over çntario in the fruit export trade? Whv? 
Fishing: 
What physical conditions are favourabIe 
industry? Naine the principal food fishes of Nova Scotia. 
How are the fish prepared for market? To what coun- 
tries does Nova Scotia export fish? Why is it neces- 
sary for warm countries, such as Southern Europe, Brazil, 
,and the West ]ndies fo import fi.h? Ships that carry 
cargoes of fish to these countries will pr«,bably carry what 
(-argoes on their return trip? Whv? Which is more 
important, the tîshing fndu.trv of ,-¢)va Seotia or that of 
{)ntario? Whv? What are the chief fishinggrounds of 
{)ntario fishermen? ('ompare the value of the fisb and 
the number of men employed in fishing, in Nova Scotia 
and çntario. (X'ova S.«.otia's catch is valued af about 
$8.000.¢100 annua||y; Ontario's. a about 
Nova Scotia there are about 30,0t)t men employed and 
in Ontario about 3,000 men.) 
Mining : 
Naine the four principal minerals found in 
Scotia. *ame, and point out on the mal), the three chier 



132 GEOGRAPHY 

,'entres ,,f c,,al-mining. What miueral is found in close 
pr,,ximity fo the eoal-mines? (ff what eeonomie impo- 
anee is this What Cape Breton eity has verv extensive 
iron and stcel work? In what ccmdition is gold round? 
In what parts of Xova Seotia is gold mining carried 
qere is gypsum found? What are ifs principal com- 
mercial uses ? 

Immberin and Ship-building: 
'" Pi]ne has praetieally disappeared from Soya Scotia." 
Why did pinc disappcar so much more rapidly than other 
tituber? Where are the chier markets for Soya Scotia's 
,.xp-rt lumber tra,le. What factors ruade Nova Seotia 
f,,rmerlv a great ship-building country? What causes 
1,ae lcd to a great decline in this industry? At what 
place is ship-building still carried on to s,)me extent? 
( Yarmouth ) 

Manufacturing : 
Wlmt i. the chier manufacturin. indu:trv of Nova 
,.otia? (Iron and steel) What eouditions are favour- 
able for this industrv? What is its chier centre? Af 
what place are there extensive car works? Xame the 
other leading mamffaeturing industries of the Province. 

TRANSPORTATION 

In what respeets is Xova Scotia so favourably situated 
fi,r carryinff on a w,,rld-wi,le e,,mmeree? With what 
«.ountries does if earrv on most of ils trade? Naine, and 
trace on the map. its leading railways, and show the part 
each has in the tra,le of the Province. 



NOVA SCOTIA 133 

8. TRADE AND COMMERCE 

Exports and imports: 
Under what eonditious of production is if possible for 
Nova Scotia to export goods to foreign countries? What 
kind of goods nlust Nova Sç.otia iml,ort? Why? Wbat 
are the ehief imports? The ehiêf e\ports? Througb 
what ports is this trade carried on? What are thc chief 
trade routes with othêr parts of Canada? 

9. PEOPLE AND GoVERNMENT 

The people of Noxa Scotia are chiefly dcs«,.ndants of 
the French Aeadians, the Ulfitt.d Empirc Loyalists. the 
Europeans (including the Hizhlan,l Scots of Uape Breton 
Islam] and thê German settlers in Lunenburg). What 
was the population, of Noxa St.otia accor,ling to the latest 
census returns? Is its population increasing? ('omparê 
with previous censuses. (Sec ('anadian Almanac. llow 
does the population of Nova Scotia compare with that of 
the city of Montreal ? 
Of what branches does tbe governnent of Xova .eotia 
consist? Iu what important respect does this differ front 
that of Ontario? Naine the Provinces whose :Legislatur(., 
each contain tvo houles, namely, a Legislative Council and 
a Legislative Assembly. 

]0. CITIES AND CIIIEF TO NS 

What is the capital city? What educational institu- 
tions are situated at Halifax? It is a naval station and 
bas a government drv-doek. Explain what these are. 
Whv is Halifax strong|y fortified? What features make 
Halifax Harbour one of the best in the world? Naine 
the chief eity on Cape Breton lsland. Account for ifs 



134 GEOGRAPHY 

,,rigin and growth. Locate Pictou and New Glasgow. }f 
what does their trade chiefiy consist? What town is af 
the extreme west end of the Province ? What is ifs trade ? 
With what American city bas if steamship connection? 
What town bas the Normal ,qehool and the Azricultural 
{'ollege? Locate if on the map. Locate Springhill. What 
is ifs chief industry? Naine, and point out on the map, 
the chier station for wirelcss telegraphy across the Atlantic 
Wean. Final Amher.«t, the third town in size. What 
-\mherst's chief indu:trv? Naine and locate Windsor 
and Wolfville, and naine an important educational institu- 
tion in each. Loeate, on the map, Grand Pré, the scenc 
of the expulsion of the A«.adians. Why is the district sur- 
rounding Grand Pré called " Evangeline's Land"? Whv 
,loes N'ova Scotia make such a delightful summer resort 
for tourists ? 



CHAPTER XII 

FORM IV, JUNIOR GRADE 

DETAILS OF THE COURSE 

THE EARTH AS A PLANET 
of the earth's rotundity; diameter, 

Proofs circum- 
ference. 
Size : 
Mcasured by time required to travel around if; com- 
pare with the rime required fo cross the Atlantic; with the 
tilne required by Columbus for his voyage fo Anlerica. 
Motion : 
('ompare with a spilming i«»p circling about the fl,,,,r; 
the earth's orbit : year, leap year. 
Seasons : 
Inclination of the earth's axis; distribution of light; 
variation in length of day and night---consult the almanac; 
cau.e of seasons; equinoxes. 
For hints on the teaching of the following topics, see 
"Sugg.tions for Lessons", Chapter XIII: The Erth 
as a Planer, the Earth's Orbit, thc Inclination of the 
Earth's Axis, Variation in the Length of Day and Night, 
the Cause of the Seasons. 

LATITUDE AI,D LONGITUDE 
. Measurement of circ]es. 
2. How fo locate a point. 
135 
lO 



136 GEOGRAPHY 

3. Latitude and parallels of latitude: 
(1) Meaning, 
(2) Use. 
4. Mcridians and longitude: 
(1) Meaning, 
(2) Use. 
5. Latitude and longitude" 
ll,,w determined on the map. 
6. Longitude and time. 
ï. JIow latitude and longitude are determined af sea. 
8. Standard rime. 
For hints on the teaching of Latitude and Longitude. 
'" Suggestions for Lessons', ('hapter XIII. 

CONTINENT STRUCTURE, ETC. 
l. ()rigin of continents. 
2. Modification of coast-lines: 
Tyl,e" (',,ast-line of North America. 
.3. {'ontinental physical features: 
( I ) North America 
(?) ,'q«,uth Ameriea 
(3) Europe 
(1) Asia 
(5) Africa 
(6) Australia. 
. Influence of topography upon civilization. 
5. General review. 
F.r ]lints on the teaching'of the following topics, see 
"'Suggestions for Lessons", Chapter XIII- Continent 
Structure, ]nflucnce of Topography upon Civilization, 
World Barriers. 



CONTINENT STRUCTURE: EUROPE 

137 

EUROPE 
1. Location : 
(1) In refercnce fo other «.«mtincnts 
(2) Compare with latitude of Canada. 
2. Size. 
3. Coast-line : 
(1) ('omparison with t, ther continents. Ad- 
vantage. 
(2) Xames of principal eoast featur(.s--seas. 
gulfs, bays, straits, capes, etc. State one 
interesting tact about each. 
4, Surface features, drainage: 
(1) P, eview facts taught in Form III, .lunior 
Grade. 
(2) Iountains and rivers that fonn boundaries 
bêtween countriês. Effêct upon local 
racês, languages, and customs. 
(3) Non-boundary mountains and rivêrs. 
5. The countrics, with capitals: 
Associate with eac]l country se,nie interest- 
ing characteristie, su(.]l as, I[olland: 
quaint customs, dikes, canais, windmills. 
6. Climate and vegetation: 
Element. lhat aff«'et the climalê of Europe: 
Latitude, westêrly winds, rainfall, effect 
of mountain ranges. 
('ompare the climatês of Western and East- 
ern Europe. Account for the difference. 
Compare the climate of Western Europe 
with that of Eastern North Aulerica in 
the saine latitude. Give reasons for fhe 
d ifference. 



138 GEOGRAPHY 

7. Occupations of people: 
(1) Basic factors: fertile soil, proximity of sea, 
aeeessibility to world's markets, presence 
of nfines, labour 
(2) The principal industries and exports of each 
country 
(3) The chief commercial cities, particu]arly 
the world-renowned seaports 
(4) World trade routes. 

.% Peoples, Governments. 

NORTH AMERICA 

A review of work assizned for Junior çrade of Form 
1II. ('onsidêr particularly hot only physical conditions, 
I,ut investigate the reasons for these conditions. Show, 
by concrêtê examplês, that physical conditions, in lar 
measure determine thê industrial life «,f the 1,eople and 
form the basis for commercial and social devêlopment. 

SOUTII AMERICA 

Follow the saine general line of studv as for Xorth 
Amêrica and Europe. The chier points fo be considered 
are position, form. sizê, relief, drainage, elimatê, indus- 
tries and industrial regions, centres of population, chier 
t'ountries and cities, people and their government. 
('ompare the pbysical conditions of this continent, 
such as, relief, drainaze, soil, climate, seasons, etc., with 
those of Xorth Ameriea. 



ç'HAFTER XIIl 

FORM IV, JUNIOR (;RADE 

SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS 

THE EARTH AS A PLANET 

Ix ADDITION fO the daily rotation of the earth on its axi. 
(see page 921, the earth bas am, ther motion. What i. 
it? It bas this motion round the sun in eommon with 
the other planers of the solar svstem. (Nee page 11!. 
IIow long does it take the earth fo make one revolu- 
tion round the sun ? It takes it almost 3c,.¼ dav.*. What 
naine is given to this interval of rime? Why is every 
fourth vear ruade a "leap year"? If vou are given the 
number designating the year, how ean you tell whether it is 
a ]ea I, year or no/? If the number is divisible by four, it 
is ealled a leap year. What exception is there to this 
general rule? The last year of a eenturv is hot eon- 
sidered a leap year unless ifs desiTnation number is 
divisible by 400. :For example, of the vears 1600, 
18o0, and 1900, only the year 16o0 was a leap year. The 
vear 1896 was a leap year: the next leap year was 194, 
aïter an interval of eight years. What is the reason of 
this? The sun vear is a little less than 365¼ days. and 
unle.s three leap years were dropped every four centuries, 
ur rime would get faster than the sun time. 

THE EARTH'S ORBIT 
The pathway on whieh the earth is suppo.ed fo travel 
round the sun is ealled its orft. If is almo.¢t, but hot 
quite, a eirde; if is a sort of flattened cirele. 3Iake a 
19 



140 GEOGRAPHY 

drawing of if on the black-board, and mark the sun a 
little to one side of its centre. Note that this will bring 
the earth a ]itt]e nearer to the sun at certain timcs of the 
year than at others. Strange fo sa)', the earth is ncarer 
the sun in winter than it is in summer. It is the slanting 
rays of the winter sun that counteract this advantage. 
Perhaps you have noticed that the sun appears somewhat 
]argcr in mid-winter than it does in midsummer. 
What is meant by the plae of tle earth'. orhit? 
verv elear noti¢m of if may be obtained by imaTining the 
sun fo be a large, stationary buoy fl.ating, hall submerged, 
on the surfar.e of a perfectly sm.,th .¢ea. Then imagine 
the earth to be a ball, also hall submêrged, floating .¢wiftly 
in a eircle round the sun-buoy. This eireular pathway 
will represent the earth's orbit, and the surface of the 
water will represent the plane of the earth's orbit. Note 
that the orhit lies on this plane ail the way r,»und and 
that the plane euts the earth into halve.. 
TtIE INCLINATION OF TtIE EARTH',q AXIS 
The earth does not move round the sun with ris axls 
straiht up and d«Jwn. Itis tilted a ]ittle, so that if is 
always inclined about 23½ degrees from the upright posi- 
tion. Draw an upright line on the b]ack-board; draw 
another line inclined fo if so that the angle between them 
is 23½ degrees--a litt]e ]arger than one quarter of a right 
angle. A. the earth moves round the sun, this inclina- 
tion makes the axis a]wav. point toward the Xorth Star. 
(See diagram, page 11, Text-book.) 
VARIATION IN THE LENGTII OF DAY AN'D .:IGHT 
Take a small globe on which are represenIed II]e poles. 
l,e equator, and a few circles parMlel lo lhe equator. Da 
hot forger tiret the earlh'. axi. alwav.a ]),,il,fS [o that part 



VARIATION IN LENGTH OF DAY AND NIGHT 141 

of tbe beavens wbere tbe N.rth Star is, and that tbe earth 
turns on its axis always from west to east, the direction 
indieated },v tbe cquator and the ,.ircl«s that arc- para]M 
fo if. Hold the globe in front of a lighted candle, tlow 
much of its surface is lighted up? l[«,w ranch of if is 
in shadow ? 
('ut a h«,h., the size «,f the ,,_dobe. in a pie«.e ,f card- 
board, insert the globe, and b<,ld if in sm.h a wav that tbe 
ligbted hall of its surface is on one side of tbe eardboard 
and the sba<lowed hall on tbe ,tb.r side. The line where 
the cardboard and zlobe meet will represent the eirele of 
iIlumina/ion. (,qee diaram, page 13. Text-book.) Pbwe 
t.hc globe so that its p,,lcs or,, equally distant fr,,m tbe 
eandle. N,te tbat whcn the gh,l,c is in this p«,.aiti«,n he 
eircle «,f illuminatiun passes tlmm/ tbe p«,los. Whv is 
this ? 
Examine the eircles on tbe globe that are parallel to 
the equator. What part of each of these eircles is in 
eandle-light? In sbadow? One hall of ear.h eirc]e is in 
eandle-light and the other hall is in sbadow. Loeate on 
lhe globe a cirele about half-way between the equah»r and 
the north pole. This eirele will indieate, appr,,xilnately. 
tbe distance tbat we are north of the equator. Mark a 
point on this eirele; keeping tbe lobe in the eardboard. 
rotate it once at a uniform rate before the ligbted eandle. 
How long a rime is this point in eandle-ligbt ? How long 
is it in shadow ? Why is the time the saine in eaeh case ? 
This illustrati«,n should give us tbe explanation why 
day and night are equal in length when the poles are 
equally distant fr,,m the sun. Everv twenty-four h«,ur. 
the earth turns on ifs axis once and carries us round with 
it in a eirele. If the sun shines direetly upon us for half 
of our daily eirele-journey, and if we are in the shadw 



142 GEOGRAPHY 

of the earth for the other hall, it follows that there must 
be twelve hours of day f«dl-wed by twelve hours f night. 
This happons twice every yêar--at the Spring and the 
Autumn equinoxes. 
Next, place the globe in the cardboard so that the 
I«,rth ]»oie is tilted toward the caIdle, lIow much of the 
circle is no" exposed to the candle-light? IIo- much of 
itis on the shadowed side? Mcasure accurately. If, say. 
fi'e eighths of the circle is in candle-light and three 
eightbs «,f if in shad«,w, and if the globe is rotated once af 
a unif(,rm rate, if f«»llows that the marked point on the 
eirclc will be in the light rive eighths «»f the rime and in 
shad«," three eightbs of the rime. 
If these conditions apply to the earth and sun. thên. 
during one circle-journey around the eartb, we sball be 
in direct sunlight for fifteen hours (that is. rive eighths of 
twentv-f«»ur hours) and in the shadow of the êartb for 
nine hours. This happens on or about June ?lst everv 
year. 
Similarly, when the north pole is turned away frç»m the 
sun, we have short days and long nights. (f course ail 
the above changes take place gradually as the earth re- 
volves about tbe sun. We referred fo this. if you remem- 
ber, in our observations in connection with '" The Seasons ", 
(see page ï 1 }. 
We have here the explanation of the facts ]earned in 
eonnection with the observation lesson on the " Variation 
in tbe Lengtb of Dav and Night" (see page îS). Tbe 
sun appears to us to more in a great circle around the 
earth. The arc traced bv the sun in the skv in the day- 
rime on or a«ut .lune 21st forms more tban half of this 
imaginary sun-circ]e, and the day is theref«»re longer than 
the nigbt. On or about December 21st the arc is less tban 



THE CAUSE OF THE SEASONS 

143 

half the sun-circle and the day is therefore shorter than 
the night. (h or al,out Mar('h 21st and S(,1)tt.nd»er 21st 
the arc is half of the sun-circle and therefore the day and 
night are equal in length. 
We know that the sun does hot really more round the 
earth. The observations referred fo above, as well as those 
mode in connection with the lesson on "The Earth's 
Rotation" (see page 92), show us that it is we who are 
journeying every day, while the sun is shining upon us, 
from the place from which we .cee the sun rise to the 
place from whi('h we .cee it set. It is the rotatingearth 
that is carrying us round in a ('ircle «m('e everv twenty- 
four hours past the stationary sun. The moving of the 
sun across the skv is onlv an illusion, like that of the 
moving fence and trees seen from the window of a fast 
railway train. 
THE CAUSE OF THE 8EA8ONS 
If the earth always moved round the sun with ifs axis 
straight up and down, the sun's ravs would alwavs shine 
upon the earth with exactly the saine degree of slant ; that 
is, the shadows cast by the sUll wouhl alwavs },c exactlv the 
saine in length. There would be no ]en,--ffhening of 
shadows as winter approaehes, and no shortening of them 
as surnmer draws near. 
Again, if the earth's axis were straight up and down. 
there would be no variation in the length of dav and 
niht. Every place w.uld always have twelve hours dav 
and twelve hours night, and the amount of heat that nv 
particular place would receive would he practically the 
saine all the year round. In other w«,rds, there wouhl be 
but one sea.on, not four. during the year. 
You will thus see that the rem cause of the seas«,ns 
mtst be the inclination of the axi.c of the .arth. Æince 



144 GEOGRAPHY 

the axis always points toward the North Star, it follows 
that. as the earth jourm.ys roun,l the sun. eaeh pole is il 
the .unlight fiw six months, and tllen in the shadow of 
the carth f,,r t]w remaining six m.nths of the year. Illus- 
irate this I,y means of a bat-pin and an apple. 
Show that, when the earth's axis bas its greatest in- 
clination toward the sun, the latter's vertical rays will 
reaeh their farthcst point north, namely, on the Tropie of 
('ancer; thi. takes place oa or about June 21st, aml gives 
us the hmgest day in the year. Show also that, when the 
axis bas it. greatest inclination away from the sun, the 
lath.r's vertical ravs wi]] reach their farthest point south. 
name]y, ,n the Tropi«. of ('aprieorn; this takes place on 
,r al»out Ih.cemher 21st and gives us the shortest dav in 
the year. 
When the sun is over the Tropic of Cancer, it is high 
up in the sky and lts rays give us summer's heat; but 
when the sun is over the Tropic of Capricorn, it is low 
d,wn in tire skv and ifs rays contain so little hcat that 
we have winter's c,ld. 
The tilting of the earth fo, and away from, the sun, 
wil] exp]ain whv the sun appears fo change ifs position 
in the sky to the south of us. being high up in summer 
and ]ow clown in winter. (,qee page ï3.) Whv have we 
winter when the sun's ravs are most slanting, and summer 
when they are nearly vertical? It is because the sun's 
rays hot only pass through the thieker ]ayer (f air, but 
a]so because they spread them.¢elves over a greater area of 
surface than the more vertical rays do. Illustrate both 
of these factors bv diagrams on the black-board. 
\'otc that the most slanting ravs are accompanied bv 
the shortesl days of sunlight, and that the near]y vertical 
rav. :are aeeompanied b,, the lonzest davs of sunlight. 



LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE 

145 

NoCe, too, that t'ice during the yêar, as the earth 
revolving round the sun, the two 1)vies arc equally 
from the sun. It is at these timcs we have lh,. 
equal day and night. Make fm'ther u:c ,»r the alTh. 
and hat-l»in and of black-board diarams nntil the suc- 
cession of the seasons is elcarly un,ler»«»«»,l. (N,.e 
diagrams, pages 14-15, Text-book.) 
Thus we find that the causes of the seas«,ns, which were 
deduced from observations that were nladc ,»f the 
shadows throughout the year (sec pages 6-î5). are 
explained. 
LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE 
MEASUREMENï OF I'Ill,'LES 
Draw a «ir«le on lhe black-board. What i a circle? 
In geographical languagc, a circle is an endh.ss line 
drawn af,rond a p,»int, and alwavs the saine distance fr,,m 
that point. That p,»int is ealled it cetttre. 
Everv eircle, whatever its size, is SUl»posed to be ,li ided 
ito 36, equal parts whi,.h are ealled d«grees. Each deroo 
is again divided int, 60 tl(tlllCs" an,1 ea«'h minute into 
6o secods. 
The earth's equator is a great, circle. at is 
centre? What is the lenth of the equator? I[ow manv 
toiles long is a degree at the equator? 25,,0 mlles  
 69 toiles, nearly. IIow many mlles are there in ,,ne 
minute? at naine is given tç a straight line drawn 
from one part of the equator thraugh the centre of the 
carth to the equator on the opposite side of the earth? 
IIow lon.g is this diameter? What naine is given fo a 
straight line from the surface of the earth to ifs centre? 
How long is 
Haw many degrees are there in the cireumference of 
the earth? Why? How manv deroes are thore holween 



146 GEOGRAPHY 

the two po]es? W]y? IIow manv degrees are 
between the equator and either pole? Why? 
Ilel,eat the table for cireular measure. 
There are 6} seconds (") in 1 minute ('), 
(;( minutes la 1 degree (°), 
aud 36 degrees in 1 eirele. 
]llu.trate bv eircles drawn on the blaek-board. 

there 

IIOW TO LOCATE A POINT 
Mark a pc, int on a blank black-board. Itow ean the 
location of thi. particular l)oint be determined? t'an it 
be located bv saying that it is a certain distance fr»m the 
top of the b]aek-board ? Whv hot? This does hot locate 
it definitely, heeause each ¢,f a whole series of points 
extending acro,. the black-board from end to end mav 
bave its location thus described. What other factor is 
necessarv in order fo locate exactly the given point? If 
wi]l be necessary fo state ifs distance from the end of the 
1,lack-boar«l. If. for example, we say that it is two feet 
tire inehes from the top of the board and four feet ten 
inehes from ifs end (]eft), we know the exact location of 
if and that no other point on the b]aek-board can bave this 
location. Note that the top and the end of the boarà are 
rea]lv two lines af right angles fo each other anà that the 
given pont lies between them. 
L,eate definite]v a point marked af random on a b]ank 
pae of vour scribb]inz book. :Note that the two e¢]ges of 
the pae, from which the measurements are ruade, form 
two lines af right angles fo each other and that the ven 
pint wh.e location is sought lies between them. 
Similarly, if may be shown that any point on a surface 
ean be readi]v locatec] provided that if lies between two 



LATITUDE AND PARALLELS OF LATITUDE 147 

lines that are at right angles to each other. Illustrate this 
by one or two examples on the black-board. 
An application of this principle is seen in the location 
of farms in a township. (See lesson on " The Township ", 
page ï9). Locate, for example, the farm klmwn as "" Lot 
12, Con. 7". Why are you sure that you have correctlv 
located if ? If is situated on the seventh concession nuln- 
bered from the town line at one side of the township, and 
if is on the twelfth lot numbered from the town line at 
one end of the township. These town lines are really two 
lines at right angles fo each other, and the farm located 
lies between them. 

LATITUDE AND PAIIALLELS OF LATITUDE 
F[ow are places located upon the earth? Place a chalk 
mark upon the surface of the school globe. Çan 
describe accuratelv ifs locatiou? Why is it ditlïc.ult 
this? Let us look for two lines at right angles fo each 
other between whieh is the point marked. 
In measuring distance north and south on the earth, 
it has been agreed to take the equator as the starting- 
place. On whieh side of the equator is the point that was 
marked? How far is it fronI the equator? The distance 
north or south of the equator is mêasured, not by mlles, 
but by degrees, each of which is, as we bave seen, 
seventy toiles. How manv derees are there between the 
equator and the poles? To make the measuring easv, 
«.ircles are drawn around the earth paralle] to the equator" 
the distance between these circles depends upon the scale 
,q page 1 
on which the map is drawn. (, ee diagrams, 
Text-book.) What is the distance in dezrees between 
these eireles on your globe? On the map of the world 
On the map of North Ameriea? On the map of Canada 
On the map of Ontario? With the help of these eireles. 



148 GEOGRAPHY 

.aleulate, in degrees, hox" far London (England), Mont- 
real, New York, Calcutta. etc., are north of the equator. 
l'rnctise exercises like this on the globe and on the maps 
of the eontinets. 
The distance ,f any place from the equator in degrees 
i ealled i» latil,ude. The degrees in latitude never vary 
in length. Whv hot? The circles that help in marking 
the latitude are called parallels of latitude. What is meant 
1,v north latitude (N. Lat.}? Bv south latitude (S. 
I,at.) ? What is meant I,y saying that Petrograd is in 
ixtv d«grees N. Lat.? That London ({htario} is in 
fortv-three derees N. Lat.? That Rio de Janeiro 
{Brazil} is in . Lat. tweutv-tbree degrees? Drill thor- 
,uzhly on x arious maps until you can readily determine 
thê latitude of places in any part of the world. 
MEIID[ANS AND LONGITUDE 
.luit a it is necessary fo have a line (the equator) as 
a startiug-pla¢.e f»r measuriuff distance n«»rth and south. 
»,» it is ueccary fo have a line f«»r a starting-placc whe 
metlsuriug distau«e east and west ou the earth. In what 
lire¢.[ic, u must this line run ? Why must if run north and 
Whe, m.asuri,. east and west, it has been ageed fo 
l«ke a m,'ri,li,» il»,' f,r the startin-pla«e. W]mt is a 
lm.ridian li,e? If is a line up,u whi«h the sun's shad,x" 
fall when if is noon. Where is our meridian or noon 
lira.? It is the line drawu n¢,rth and south throuh the 
«,n hadow east bv the stake in the sdm,l yard. (Sec 
1,.«son on " eac,ns ", pae 0.) Hoxv lon is thi., 
,«.ridian lie of ,nrs? We may imane if fo extend 
n,,rth to the N.rth P,le and south fo the ,nth Pole: in 
,,ther words, our meridian is a norfh-and-south noon line 
bat is snpp,sefl fo run from pole to pole passing through 



IIERIDIANS AND LONGITUDE 

149 

here on its wav. Since the sun crosses this line evcry day 
at noon, it follows that every place on if will have noon 
at exactly the saine rime that we do. What other places 
have meridians? Every place must have ifs own meridian. 
Why? What is Toronto's meridian? Keep in mind that 
meridians are north-and-south noon lines; and note that 
they cross the equator af right angles {what d«es this 
mean?), and that they are reallv semicirclo meetin, at 
the poles. (,qee diagram, page 317. Ontario High School 
Physical Geography.) Whv are thev semicircles? 
If is the meridian that passes through London (En- 
land) that has been agreed upon a.¢ the starting-place for 
measuring distances ea.t and west on the earth. It is for 
this reason that if i cal]ed the Fir.t M,,ridiln. Find if 
on the globe and on the map; SOU will final it marked 
,. 0 o - 
Distance east or west of the First Meridian is called 
longitude; it is alwavs expre:.¢ed in deffrees. What 
wc.t longitude (W. Long.) mean? East lonzitu,le (E. 
L«»ng.) ? If two pers«ns leac (;rcenwich af exa«tlv tho 
saine rime and travel af cxactlv the saine rate, ont 
cast. thc other we.t, where will they mect? Thev will 
meet half-wav round the gobe--af 18o degees of lon_i - 
rude. that being hall of .260 dcgrces. Find the 1.*th 
meridian on the map or globe. 
N-w, just as parallels «f latitude were drawn ai «.ortain 
interval. fo help in measuringdistance n-rth or south of 
the equator, so mcridians are drawn at certain interva].¢ 
to the ea.t and we.¢t «f the Fir.t Meridian to help in 
measuring distances east or west, the intervals depending 
up«»n the scale on whi«h the map is drawn. The mea.urc- 
ments in degrees are ruade along the equator. (Sec 
dagram, pae 13, Text-book.) 



150 GEOGRAPHY 

What names are given fo the different meridians? 
The one that crosses the equator 5 degrees west of the 
First Meridian is called the 5th meridian W. Long. What 

is the naine of the «,tle that 
east of the First Meridian? 
L.lg. or il E. l,ong.? As 
east or fo the west of the 
«al]ed the ]_sOth meridian. 

crosses the equat,,r 3o degrees 
Is the l,0th meridian in W. 
if is the saine distance fo the 
First Meridial, if is simp]y 
What group of is]ands in the 

Pacifie Ocean is crossed by this meridian? If meridians 
cross the equator at interva]s of one de¢ree, how many of 
them are there betwoen the Fir.,t Moridian and the 1,qOth ? 
Note that these meridians are farthest apart af the equator 
and that they meet at the poles. The ]ength of a longi- 
tude degree therefore varies. If is greatest af the equator 
{almost 70 toiles) ; af the po]es its ]enh is 0. Except in a 
f««v cases whi«h need not be considercd here, the latitude 
degrce, as alreadv noticed, never varies in ]ength; it is 
alwavs approximate]y 70 toiles. Drill thorouffhly on 
various maps until the pupils tan readily determine the 
hmitude of places in ail parts of the world. (Sec 
diagram, page :13, Text-book.) 

LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE 

Where do East Lonffitude and West Lon..-,itude meet? 
Thev meet, as already noted, at the 1.q0th meridian. Into 
how many sections, therefore, is the earth's surface 
,lividcd bv the equator and the First 3Ieridian? What 
arc they? They are: (et) That part of the carth north 
of the equator and west of the First Meridian as far as 
thc 180th meridian. (b) That part north of the equator 
and east of the First Mcridian as far as the 180th 
meridian. (c) That part south of the equator and west 
of the First Mcridian as far as the 180th meridian. 



LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE 

151 

(d) That part south of the equator and east of the First 
Meridian as far as tbe 181th meridian. 
Locate these se(.tio,s on tbe globe an:] ne,te that ea,-b 
forms one quarter of the earth's surface. Naine and 
locate on a map of tbe world important countries, eities, 
etc., in each section. Note that any place in any of these 
secfions lies betreen wo ]ines that are at right an.files fo 
each other. What are these lines in each of tbe four scc- 
tions? They are the equator and tbe Fir.t Meridian. 
Find, for e.xample, the situation of Winnipez. 
sure in de,ces how far if is nortb of the equator. It is 
5o de,ces. Next, measure in degrees how far it is west 
of the First 3Ieridian. It is about 97 dezrees. What, 
then, i. tbe location of Winnipeg? It is apl,roximately in 
N. Lat. 50 ° and W. Long. 9î °. 
Note that this meth,,d of locatin Winnipez is tbe 
saine as that used in ]oeating a point on tbe blaek-board 
or on the blank page of an exercise book. It is also the 
ame method as that used in locating tarins in a town- 
ship. 
A sllip is reported bv wireless teleyraphy to be in dis- 
tress in N. Lat. 36 ° 25" and W. Long. 4, ° 4o'. Locate 
this point on the map as near]y as vou tan. Praetise 
exercises such as this until vou ean, by using the map, 
determine the latitude and lonzitude of any place that 
may be named; or can loeate approximately any point 
whose latitude and longitude is known. 

LON'GITUDE AND TI,[E 
In what part of the skv do we see the sun af noon? 
Where do the peop|e of Halifax sec if when if is no«,n 
trith them? When if is noon in Toronto, can if be noon 
af Vancouver at the same rime ? Why not ? It is because 
11 



152 GEOGRAPHY 

the sun cannot be directly over the noon line af Toronto 
and at Vancouver af the sanie rime. Different meridians 
]ace t],eir noon at different limes. 
In what directiç»n is the carth r,)tating? If if is rotat- 
ing from wcst tu cast, which city will have sunrise earlier, 
T.»ronto or lla]ifax? T(»ronto or Yancouver? Why? 
Which ç»f thcsc will bax'e noçm first? Why? 
Thrçmzh huw many degr(.es dues a place pass while 
lhe carth makcs mie r,»tali«m? Exp]ain this. IIow many 
hours dues if take a place tu pass through these 360 
d(...:rc.s? Thr(,ugh h.»w ma)y dcgrees dues it pass ev,.rv 
hour? IIow d,»es this affcct the rime of places that have 
,liffcrcnt noon line.% or mcri4ians? There will be a dif- 
fcrence in rime of une hour for every 15 degrees east or 
wesk :If ]Ialifax is 63 ° W. Lang. and Peterborough 8  
W. Long., what is the difference in their rime? Which 
secs the sun ri.e first? When if is noon af IIalifax, what 
rime is if af Peterborough? When it is noon af London 
(England) what rime is it af 15 ° W. Long.? Af 15 ° E. 
Long.? Af 3-) ° W. Long.? At 45 ° E. Long.? Af the 
lb0th meridian? When if is noon af London (England), 
what is the rime, respectively, af Naples, Petrograd, 
Manilla, Philadelphia, Denver, Fort William, and New 
)rleans? ('onsult the map. (See diagram, -page 13, 
Text-book.) 
If von started af London (England) af noon and 
travelled westwar& what change would vou bave to make 
in vour rime for every 15 degrees? Does the traveller 
.,..,oinz west gain «,r lo.e rime? If he kept on travelling 
we.ward until he gr» baek to his starting-place, how much 
lime w,mld he gain? Explain how he would ain a whole 
dav uf twenty-four hours. If he eireled the earh, going 
eastward, how mueh rime would he lose? 



LONGITUDE AND TIME 

153 

Suppose there are three me.n, A, B, and C: A stayed 
af home; B travelled around the earth, going westward 
all the way; C also travelled around the earth, going east- 
ward ail tbe way. B and C started their journey fr,m 
the saine place and at the saine rime, and h,»th returne,1 
at the saine rime. A savs that they wcre away ninetv 
days; B maintains /hat he bas been away ninetv-one davs; 
while (' maintains that he was eighty-nine dav« away. 
Xot one of the three agree as o the inervening /inle. 
How would vou explain their difficulty? 
tIow do sea-captains and sai]ors overcome this diflï- 
cultv and keep their rime right ? When they are crossing 
tlle Pacific ç)cean and reach a line called the Intcrnational 
Date Line, which is in the neighbourhood «»f the lgt)th 
meridian, thev change their time reckoning exactly one 
day. For examp]e, if they reach this line on their wes/- 
ward voyage on Saturday noon, they call it Sunday noon; 
but if thev reach if on Sa/urday noon when eas/-bound 
they call if Friday noon. If B and C, in the illustration 
used above, had done this, their rime would have aeed 
with that of A who staved at home.* 

STANDARD TI3IE 
The greater part of Canada is si/uated between the 
60th and the 135th meri«/iansa width of approximately 
75 degrees. If there i. a difference in SUl time of one 
hour for every 15 degrees, what is the approximate dif- 
ference in time between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of 
Canada? Why does this make if difficult for transcon- 
tinental rai]ways fo arrange their rime-tables. Travellers, 
*For methods used in determining Latitude and Longi- 
tude. see Ontario High 8chool Physical Geography, pages 
318-19. 



154 GEOGRAPHY 

t,«,, wnu|d find a differenee in sun rime of rive hours 
rather inconvenient. Why? 
To overeome this difiïculty, Canada bas been divided 
into rive belts or distriets whose wJdth from east fo west 
]., apllroximately , 15 degrees each. These belts are asso- 
ciated respc«.tively, with the 60th, the 75th, the 90rb, the 
]r5th, and the ]OOth meridians. 
What is the difference in sun rime between the First 
Meridian at ;reenwich and the 60th meridian? The rime 
at the 61th meridian is four hours slower than Greenwich 
rime. SimiIarIy, the time at the 75th, af the 90th, at the 
llSth, and af thc 12oth meridians is, respectiveIy, rive 
hours, six hours, seven hors, and eiht hours slower than 
 reenwich rime. 
Note that the rime belts are so arranged that their 
b«,undaries are larzely provincial. (Sec Text-book.) The 
Maritime Provinces are associated with the 60th meri- 
dian; hdario ,nd Quebec to lhe Great Lakes, with the 
Sth; We.ter {ntario and Manitoba, with the 90th; Sas- 
katchcwan and Alberta, with the 105th; and British 
{'.lumbia with the loth. By this arrangement the rime 
in Ontario is one hour slower than tlat of the Maritime 
Provinces; Manitoba's time one hour slower than that of 
Ontario ; etc. , 
'hcll it is ] o'«lock noon af London (England} 
what time ]s if in the Maritirae Provinces? In Ontario? 
W-hen if is noon in (ntario what time is it ai. Halifax, 
Winnipeg, Iegina, Calgary, and Vancouver, respective|y? 
When the Ontario schools are being dismissed af 12 o'clock 
llOOIl, what is probabIy taking place in the schools of 
British Columbia? Why? 



CONTINENT STRUCTURE: ORIGIN 

153 

CONTINENT STRUCTURE 

ORIGIN OF CONTINENTS 
The story of the origin and growth of continents is a 
very intcresting one. The secret was discovered by men 
called geologists, who have ruade a very careful study of 
thc rocks; and, although they bave hot yct |,een ab|e to 
learn many of the details, enough is now known to make 
the story a probable one. 
These geologists tell us that ages and ages ago the 
earth mass was much warmer than it is now and tllat 
has been gradually cooling off. They also tell us that 
rock surface was much more unif,rm; that, c,,mlmra- 
tively speaking, its ridges were hot so high n(,r it. de- 
pressions so deêp as af presênt. Ilênee the oeeans at that 
time were probab|y more extensive in area but hot so 
great in dêpth as out oeêans are. As the êarth gradually 
eooled, it gradually shrunk in size, just as m,,st sub.tanees 
do when eooling. As this shrinking 1,roeêss eontinucd, 
the rock surface of the êarth bêeame more and more 
folded intç higher ridges and lower depre.si«ms, in much 
the saine way that the skin of a hot, baked apple 
when eooling. 
In cour.e of rime the fo]ds, or ridges, gradua]|y rose 
higher and higher above the surface of t]le s|lallow ocean, 
carrying up with them broad ocean-bottom plains that 
were lying at or near the surface. These ridges, with 
low adjoining plains, formed the beginnin of the 
tinents, as we now know them. In the meantime file 
vaters of the shallmv ocean gradua]]y withdrew into the 
deeper depressions that were being formed in thc under- 
water rock surface. In this way the oceans, as we now 
know them, began to form. 



156 GEOGRAPHY 

If is be|ieved that the ]and surface of the earth is hot 
yet stationary; that itis still rising in places and sinking 
i others; and that this rising and sinking is taking place 
so grmually lhat centuries may pass before the re.ults 
are noticeable. It is believed too, that the general out- 
lines of the continents as well as their characteristic sur- 
face features are, in the main, the direct result of this 
undulatory moement of the earth's crust. 
Not only have the surface features of the continents 
},een greatly changed by the earth's contraction forces, 
but thev have been further modified by the erosion work 
of rivers and «Jther azencies that have eut deeply into 
the rock surfaee ]epressions thus formed vary in char- 
acter fr«Jm the st(,ep-.ided gorge to the deep, broad valley. 
The sea bottoms, on the other hand, not being subject 
fo such erosion-forces, are likely fo bave surfaces much 
more miform in character. This is probably why a sink- 
ing coast region is ]ikely fo produce a broken shore-line; 
and a rising coast region, a COml)aratively unbroken shore- 
line. 
NORTII AIERICA 
The above theorv will a«count for the broken shore- 
li,es ¢,f the northern half, as well as for the compara- 
live]y unbroken shore-]ines of the southern half of the 
\',rth Ameri.an '«,ntinent. (gee " glmre Forms t»f North 
Alneri«a ". page 103.) 
Accordinz to geologists, the northern coast regions of 
N,,rth America bave been gradua]ly sinking, until the 
sea ],as af length entered the river mouth. and valleys, 
f,,rming nmny harbours, bays, etc. ; while the higher |and 
forms still remain above water, forming peninsu]as, capes, 
islands, etc. Thus Newfound]and Island, the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, the wide mouth of the St. Lawrence River, 



CONTINENT STRUCTURE: SOUTH AMERICA 157 

Belle Isle Strait, the Nova ,qcotian Peninsula, the Bay of 
Fundy, as well as the many other shore forms round along 
the eoasts of Canada--east, west, north--have been eaused 
or have been greatly modified in this wav. 
On the other hand, the theory suggests that the rlsing 
of the more or less uniform sea bottolns contiguous to the 
original shore-line will explain the a]most unbrokên shoré- 
lines of the southern hall of the continent. If the south- 
eastern, southern, and western eoasts of the -United 
and the eoasts of Mexiêo and Central Amcriêa arc eare- 
fully exanfined on a wall map of North Ameri«a, com- 
paratively few barbour. ancl other sbore forms will be 
round. 
Experiment: In a deep tray make a plasticihe model 
of North America; surround the model with an eenly- 
sloping margin to represent the sea bed contiguous to the 
shore-line; pour sufficient water around the model to 
reaeh the shore-line; and then tilt the trav slightly so 
that the end representing the north is lowered and the 
o/her end raised. What is /he result? lIow does /his 
experiment help to explain the charaeter of the North 
American eoast-lines ? 
The pupils of this ç;rade bave a]readv studied the 
general features of North Ameriea and shouh], therefore, 
be familiar with its highlands, slopes, p/ain., and river 
basins. If North Ameriea has been well tau._,zht, the 
knowledge obtained and the method followed should serve 
as a guide in the teaehing of the other continents. 

SOUTII A]IERICA 

Review the three highlands of ,qouth Ameriea. the con- 
tinental axis, the ehief river basins, and the re._,2-ular coast- 
line. (See Relief Map, page 225, TIr ,çtory of tle Eartl 



158 GEOGRAPHY 

and Ils Peoples.) The South American toast regions have 
been rising and are unbroken because the level sea bottoms 
are bcing raised. There is, consequently, a general absence 
,,f good, natural harbours. This is particularly truc of tbe 
l'acific coast. What effect must this bave upon file develop- 
ment of the continent ? 

EUROPE 
Pbysically Europe and Asia form a single continent. 
called Erasia; but as Europe has so long been considered 
a «',,ntinent by itself and has been so long regarded as the 
home of the civilized races it is usual to consider if 
separately. 
What is its area ? ]t bas tbe longest coast-line in pro- 
portion to ifs area of ay of the continents. Verify this 
statement. Why is the toast-line so mueh broken? Its 
shores, espeeially in the north and west, bave been sinking 
thus forming many inlets. The Baltie Sea and ifs galfs 
are old land valleys tbat have been submerged. Naine a 
few of the otber inlets on these eoasts. In Southern 
EuroI»e tbe rising and sinking of the land areas, while 
tbe m-untains were forming, has ruade many peninsulas, 
seas, etc. The Mediterranean Sea occupies a deep depres- 
siou formed bv the sinking of the earth's erust. Loeate 
on the map of Europe the ehief eoast features of the 
Mediterranean. What effect bas Europe's mueb broken 
.oast-linê had upon ifs development as a continent? 
What is the primary highland of Europe? The Alps 
and assoeiated mountains. Note that the Alps Mouutains 
fi,rm a hub, as if were, from whieh ra¢]iate minor ranges 
in all directions. Naine and loeate tbem. This system 
,f mountain ranges bas more or less isolated nlany areas 
«,f Europe from one another. What results have sueh 



CONTINENT STRUCTURE: ASIA 

159 

physical barriers had upon race and language develop- 
ment? Give instances. Trace the continental axis of 
Europe from Cape Finisterre ("End of the Land"l 
over the Cantabrian, the Pyrenees, Alps, Dinaric Alps, and 
Balkan Ranges fo the Dardanelles. The Caucasus P, angc 
seems fo be a continuation eastward of the Carpathian 
]Iountains, from which if is separated by a depression 
{Black Sea). The Alps and associated highlands form 
the great plateau region of Central Europe. What im- 
portant rivers flow ïrom this plateau? What branch of 
thê Alps extend south into Italy? (.qtudy P, tqiêf Map. 
page °gï, The Story of the Earth and Ils Peoples.) 
What mountains form a secondary highland? The 
Scandinavian M,untains. What grêat lowland plain lies 
between the primary and secondarv highlands? Note it. 
eat extent--from the Atlantic fo the Ural 31ountaius. 
Trace the drainage divide that separates if into two slopês; 
one, sloping north-west fo the Arctic and Atlantic; and 
the other, south-east fo the Caspian and Black .qeas. What 
are the chief rivers in each slope? Note that the watêr. 
of the Black Sea Basin force their way through the con- 
tiuêntal axis at the Bosphorus (Ox-ford) and the Dar- 
danelles. 
A8IA 
(wing fo its inaceessibility, comparatively little i. 
known of the mountain system of Central Asia. We know 
that there is a great mass or knot of mountains north- 
west of India called the Pamirs (" Iloof of the World "' 
from which, like thê Alps in Europe, radiate ranges in 
various directions. The Himalayas, Iïuen-lun, and Tian- 
Shan extend eastward; the Hindu Kush westward; an.l 
the Sulaiman southward. Lot.aie the.e ran._-es. 



160 GEOGRAPHY 

The IIimalayas ("Abode of Snow") separate India 
from Tibet. They contain forty peaks that rise more than 
72t.0o0 feet above the sea-level, one of which is the highest 
in the world. What is ifs name? IIow high is it? 
The Kuen-lun I:ountains separate Tibet from Chinese 
Turkestan and Mongolia. Though ifs crests are not so 
high as those of the Himalayas, this range surpasses them 
all in average altitude and is, on the whole, the most 
e]evated on the earth. Bctween the Himalayas and the 
Kuen-luns is Tibet, the greatest plateau in the world; 
ifs avcrage clcvation is almost as high as the highest peak 
(Mount Blanc) in the Alps. 
The Tian Shan (" Sky-:M:ountains") separate Turke- 
stan fr,m Chinese Turkestan. and are continued eastward 
as the Altai Muuntains. Inclosed between the Kuen-luns 
on the south, the Altai on the north, and the Grêat 
Khingan Range on the east, lies the vast Gobi Plateau, 
(lower than the Tibet Plateau) the most of it a desert 
,,f sand and mountains. orth-east of the Altai are the 
Yablonoi and beyond these the Stanovoi range extending 
fo Bering Strait. These mountains are in detached masses 
and must not be considêred a continuous range. 
The continental axis of Asia extends from the Dar- 
danelles to Bering Strait, and is believed to lie along the 
ïollowing m,untain ranges: Taurus, Elburz, Hindu Kush, 
Pamir, I(uen-]un, Great Khiugan. Yablonoi, and Stanovoi. 
Af the Dardanelles it connects with the continental axis 
,,f Europe--makinz au almost continuous axis of 10,000 
mlles, extending from Cape Finisterre fo Bering Strait; 
this is nearly as long as the continental axis of çorth and 
outh America taken togethêr. (Consult Relief Iap, 
page 349, T]e Story of the Earth and Ils Peoples.) 



CONTINENT STRUCTURE: ASIA 161 

Asia presents many striking surface contrast:. It 
bas, as we have learned, the greatest heights in the world ; 
if has also the most deep-sunk depre.,.ions. It has the 
most elevated table-lands and the lowest plain.. The 
deepest depression in the world is the vallev of the l*ead 
Sea, whieh is 1,312 feet below the sea-level. 
The Aretie toasts of A.ia arc similar to tho:e of North 
America and have had a similar origin. Ilow were thev 
formed? They are inhabited only by fur-baring animals 
and sea-bird.. Thê east, south, and west coasts of the 
continent are ranch broken hy peninsulas, sea:, gulfs, etc. 
The peninsulas are ff, fine0] bv momdain spurs or high- 
lands extending oceanward. While these pcninsular high- 
lands were rising, corresponding deprê.¢sions were 
heside them. Why shouh] we expect this? The.e deprcs- 
sions have bccome seas, gu]f., etc. What is the relation 
of the capes of A:ia to these peninsulas? \-otê that 
Arabia is thê largest penin.¢ula in the world. 
W-hat islands of Asia are continental in their origin ? 
What evidence have we that the .apan I:lands are formed 
by a range of mountains rising from the bêd of the ocean ? 
Why are earthquakes so frequent in Japan? Is it be- 
cause file mountains are still growing? Why .hould this 
cause earthquakes? When we hear oï earthquakes taking 
place in various parts oï the world--some of them verv 
destructive, other. seareely pereêptible--is it a sign that 
the earth mass is still eontraeting in bulk? Why do you 
think so ? 
The plains of A.ia are all on the outer borders of the 
continent? How would you aeeount for this? All tho 
eat rivers of Asia have their source in the table-lands 
and mountains of the interior. Loeate the ehieï plains 
and the rivers that flow through them. What rivers have 



162 GEOGRAPHY 

formed great alluvial plains that are supporting dense 
p,pulations? So extensive are the alluvial plains formed 
,y the rivers of India (Ganges, Brahmaputra, Indus), 
that it is said that one may travel from the mouth of the 
anges in a north-westerly direction fo the Punjab with- 
,,ut seeing a pebble as large as a small marble. The 
'" stone-mills" in the mountains seem fo be doing their 
w,,rk well. Explain. It is sai,l that " Asia is the home 
,f the twin-streams ". Loeate the IIwang-Ho and Yangtse- 
kianr, {anges and Brahmaputra. Tizris and Euphrates, 
Sir and .\mu. Locate the Mekong Iiver. This river is 
.ttt toiles long and is said to have the ]argest volume 
,,f m,v river in Asia. How would you account for this? 
{l'«»nsult tl,e Rainfall Map Oll page 4o of Text-b«»ok.) 
AFRICA 
Why is .'friea ealled the "Dark Continent"? Give 
two reasons. .'frica has no continental "backbone". 
What d,,es this mean? It bas no great mountain ranges 
in the interior. Afriea is a great plateau continent. 
Whv? If is walled in by a rira of mountains or high- 
|ands round the edge and parallel with the eoast. Trace 
lhis rim on the map, noting the following mountains: 
).tlas. Içong, Içamerun, Drakenberg. and the Abyssinian 
l'latcau cuhninating in the south in Mounts Kalimanjaro 
and Kenia. (Consult Relief Map on page 440, Tbe Story 
of the Earth ad Ils People.ç.) On the map on page .'237 
,,f the Text-l,ook, trace the drainage divide from the Medi- 
terranean Sea to the Cape of Good Hope. Fr,»m this (livide 
trace the drainage divide fo Cape Guardafui. inclosing the 
headwaters of the Nile. A great part of Africa requires no 
drainage. Why not? Note particularly the ,qahara and 
Kalahari Deserts. Locate on the map the following river 
basins: Nile, Niger, Congo, Orange, Limpopo. Zambesi. 



CONTINENT STRUCTURE: AUSTRAIJIA 163 

What natural obstructions fo navigation are f«mnd «»n these 
rivers? Where are these obstruction situated? Why 
are they situatcd there? What effect havc these ol,stru,.- 
tions upon the development of the interi«,r of the co:- 
tinent? Why has thc absence of good harbours on tl_e 
coast a similar effcct ? 

AUSTRALIA 
This continent., like Africa, i. a plateau surrnun,led 
by a rira of mountain. and highlands with short si,Tes 
fo the ocean. Ifs surface suggests a plate in f«,rm, sinee 
the low interior rises gradually te, plateaus and mountain. 
af the coast. The highest mountains are in the east and 
south-east near the coast. Tasmania is a e,ntinuati,n 
.f the eastern highlands. What effect has ea«.h of the 
following factors upon thc development of Australia: 
1. The regularity of coast-line and the comparative 
absence of g«»o«l harbours ? 
2. The proximity ,f the mountains fo the coast? 
3. The absence of navigai)le rivers leading into the 
interi,r ? 
4. lts isolation from the rest of the world? 
(ive a rea.on f,,r ve»tir }lSw(,r in each case. (Sec 
Relief Map. page 416, The ,','tory of tl, r Earth end l& 
Peoples. ) 
GENERAL REVIEW 
After the pupils have mastercd the preceding work 
file continents, they should be ready fo form a meutal 
picture of the earth as a unit-body. Their minds, after a 
study of the parts comprising the whole, should now bc 
prepared for a synthetic concept of the whole earth. 
The questions that follow are intended merely as types. 
The teacher will, of course, supplement them to suit thc 



164 GEOGRAPHY 

needs of the class. A good device fo increase the interest 
and at the saine rime fo secure the necessary review drill 
is fo encourage competition among the pupils by having 
geography matches either written or oral. Try if. 
What lands slope fo the Pacific Ocean ? To the Indian 
h.ean? To the At]antic (),.ean? To the Arctic Ocean? 
To the Mcditerranean Sca? To what oceans do the short 
««mtinental s]opes incline? Nearest fo what ocean is the 
«.mltinenta] axis of North America? Of South America? 
[f Eurasia? llow many out]ets has the Arctic Ocean? 
llow wide is Bering Strait? What effect has this narrow 
ourlet upon the climate of the North Pacifie Ocean? 
Why? Af what points do the Atlantic and Pacifie Oceans 
j,,in? What oeean is widest from east fo west? Wha 
indentati.n extmds farthest into the land? 
W]mt bighlands protect the continents from being 
wurn away by the waves and rides of the «»cean? Wha 
«',,ast-lines have no such protection? What islands seem 
to have once been parts of Europe? Of Asia? Of North 
Ameriea? From what highlands were they broken off? 
What is]ands partially inelose seas or large gulfs and bays 
in Asia? In Europe? In North America? What con- 
tinental s]ope is most broken 1)y large inlets? What 
peninsulas extend in a northerly direction? 
What ocean reeeives most water fr«m the land? What 
,.,mtinental slope furnishes most water fo the Pacifie? 
What is the l«mzest river in the world? The largest? 
lnto what ocean do both these rivers flow? What is the 
longest river flowing into the Pacifie Ocean? Into the 
Mediterranean Sea? Into the Indian Ocean? Into the 
Arctic Ocean? (Consult the Reference Tables in the 
Text-book.) What navigation difficulties are met with 
in the rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean? In African 



GENERAL REVIEW 

165 

rivers? With the exception of the Darling River, whv 
is there an absence of great rivers in Australia? 
What area of Xorth Ameriea is hOt drained into the 
ocean? (The alt Lake Basin) Of Eurasia? Locate 
these on the map. tIow is the greater part of the interior 
of Australia drained? What regions in Afriea do not 
require drainage? Why hot? What is the largest river 
in the world whose waters do hot reach the oeean? Note 
that this river depends less upon mountains for it. waters 
than any other great river in the world. What beeomcs 
of the waters that flow into the Caspian and Dead Seas? 
Why do they hot fill up and overflow their banks? .kre 
they likely fo have underground conneetion with the 
Mediterranean Sca? Why hot? They oeeupy depressions 
that are below sea-leve]. 
Naine in order all the mountains over which the con- 
tinental axes pass from Cape Finisterre to Cape Horn, 
via Bering Strait. What mountains form the primary, 
or main, highland region in North Am,»rica? In South 
Ameriea? In Europe? In Asia? In Australia? What 
is the highest mountain peak in North America? In 
South America? In Europe? In Asia? In Afriea? In 
what continents do the continental axes extend north and 
south? East and west? What relation has the direction 
of the continental axes fo thê general direction in whieh 
the continents extend? What are the two secondary high- 
land reons of North Amêri¢.a ? The two secondarv hih- 
lands of South .a_meriea ? What is the seeon«]arv highland 
region of Europe? In North America, South Ameriea, 
and Europe, locate definitely the broacl plains between 
the primary and secondarv hihlands. What continents 
have broken toast-lines? Unbroken toast-lines? Which 
continents have been developed most? Which the least? 



166 GEOGRAPHY 

What relation is there between the character of the toast- 
line and thc development of the continent? Explain. 

INFLUENCE OF TOPOGRAPHY UPON CIVILIZATION 

What effe«'t has the structure «»f a country upon ifs civil- 
ization ? A pe)ple tan never beeolne eivilized unless they 
have l, omes. In aneient rimes permanent bornes were 
possible only where fertile areas of the earth were walled 
in br natural barriers, sueh as mountains, deserts, etc. 
Iu Palestine, for example, the land was fertile--a 
'" land flowing with milk and honey". It was a country 
with manv natural defenees--bounded on the west by an 
alnlost inaccessible sea-eoast; on tbe south bv a great 
desert through wbicb the wandering Israelites had passed" 
«,n the east by the Sea of 3alilee, the deep valley of the 
River .J)rdan. and tbe Dead Sea. In the north was a 
plain, the one weak spot in this great natural fortress. 
The Israelites had manv enemies in the surrounding 
eountries, many of them being wandering nomads whose 
trade was war. Thev were able fo defend themselves 
sueeessfully against tbese enemies for eenturies and thus 
beeame the 5mnders of the highest eivilization of their 
time. 
tber raees iii other regions had sinlilar opportunities 
fo develop a distinctive eivilization. qlat natural con- 
ditions ruade possible tbe eivilization of India, Japan, 
Egypt. (;reece, Re, me. respectively? 
What modcrn forces and tendencies have rnadc impos- 
sible the conditions upon which ancient civilizations were 
based? For some of the factors in the development of 
the British type of civilization sec "The Evolution 
British Empire" (Chap. XV). 



WORLD BARRIERS 

167 

WORLD BARRIERS 
For what purpose are jails, or prisons, used ? Of wbat 
use are the barred doors and window.? Thc bars or 
"barriers" prevent prisoners getting outside or beyond 
them. Is the high jail wall a barrier too? Why? 
IIow are lots, farms, etc., separated from one another ? 
Are these " line" fences barriers? What purpose do they 
serve ? 
Are swamps, muskegs, rivers, lakes, etc., barriers? 
Why? Do animais, such as the horse, fox, dog, etc., find 
them barriers? Why? ]ï)o birds find them barriers? 
W-hy hot? Does man? Why not? Are thev barriers fo 
the spread of trees, weeds, etc.? Explain. What name 
do we give fo barriers round in nature, that is. not ruade 
by man? Naine other "natural" barriers. Which of 
these may be called "wor]d" barriers? 'ïy? 

MOUNTAIN BARRIERS 
:X'ame the greatest mounfain ranges of the O]d Wor|d. 
Which of these forms the greatest bar or barrier fo travel ? 
The IIimalayas. Whv? 
I.¢ man able to cross them ? Are animais? Are birds ? 
Are plants? Which of these would find the least diiïi- 
culty in crossing the Himalayas? Wby? What races of 
people are separated bv the Himalayas? What general 
influeoE.e has this range of mountains had up.n the 
development of the people of China and ]ndia? Why? 
What are some of the «haracteri.¢fic animals of ]ndia? 
Why are these anima|s not round fo any great extent 
north of the Himalavas? 
How are plants able to cross mountain ranges? What 
speeial dilïiculties do they meet with in cros.ing? Show 
that these diflïeulties are hot met with in spreading over 
19 



168 GEOGRAPHY 

a level c«»untry. Europe is a comparatively slnall con- 
tinent, llow would you account for ifs having so many 
faces of people and languages? Naine other mountain 
barriers and explain how man overcomes them. 

O('EAN BARRIERS 
Naine the or.eans. Are they barriers? Why? Why 
may we «.al] them world barriers? Does man find the 
«»ccans as great barriors as formerly? Why hot? What 
living things ])esides man, ]lave round the oceans fo be 
great barriers? What kind of oceans form the greatest 
barricrs? (Wide occallS and the frozen oceans) Naine 
the widest ocean. What c«mth,ents are separated by if? 
Wlmt «.ontinents are separated by the frozen Aretie Oeean? 
Whv is the Arc.tic Ocean so impassable a barrier? What 
««'êan Imrriers sep«rate Ameriea from the 01d Wofld? 
What race of pe»ple l]ved in America at the rime of 
ifs discovcry l»y Colunlbus? Why wcre no white people 
f»und in Amcriea af that rime? Were there any Indians 
living in Europe bef«,re Columbus discovered America? 
Why hot ? 
What general effect did the océan barriers of America 
have upon the development of ifs people during the long 
«enhries beforc the white man came? In what rescts 
arc the Indians physically unlike the whites? (See Text- 
book.) After its discoverv manv white people seled ifi 
Anlerica. A ]are number of file descendants of the 
former are stil] fo be found in various parts of the con- 
tinent. 
Did the ear]y explorers of America find types of 
animais different from those found in the Old World? 
Naine some of them. Why were these hot round in te 
Old World ? Naine some important animals of Europe 



DESERT BARRIERS 

169 

hot found in the New World. Why were they not found 
there ? 
Naine some native American birds. Naine a European 
bird that bas become so «.ommon in Ameri«.a as fo be a 
nuisance. Do hirds find the ocean as great a barrier as 
the other lower animals? Why hot? Did birds cross 
from Europe to Ameriea. and iee versa, before the latter 
was discovered? Naine a few. 
Do plants travel from one part of the earth fo other 
parts? What proof have we of this? ][,)w do plants 
travel? Give an examp]e. What effect has the ocean 
upon the dispersal of seeds? Why? :X-ame plants f«,und 
on]y in America previous fo ifs discovery. .-ame plants. 
useful and injurious, which bave since found their way 
fo America. 
NOTE.---The ocean barriers in relation fo the other 
continents mav be treated in a similar manner. 

DESERT BARRIERS 
--ame the greatest desert in the world. What great 
race of people lire south of the Sahara? N'orth of the 
Sahara? What conditions for the independent develop- 
ment of these races were ruade possible bv the Sahara 
desert ? 
.\-ame typieal wild animals found south of the .ahara. 
Whv are these hot found fo any great extent north of the 
Sahara? Is the Sahara a total hindrance fo the migra- 
tion of birds? Why hot? 
Does if hinder the dispersal of seed.? Expla]n. How 
does man cross the Sahara? N'ame other desert barriers. 



CHAPTER XIV 

FORS[ IV, SENIOR C, RADE 

DETAILS OF THE COURSE 

WINDS 
1. Rcvicw ]esson on " Winds " f,,r Form II. (See page 64.) 
2. Nature and influence of the fo]lowing: 
(l) Trade-winds 
(2) Prcvai]in.g Westerlies 
(3) Belts of eahn: 
(a) Equatoria| (rising air), 
(b) II.rse latitudes (falling air). 
(4) Monsoons 
(5) Polar winds 
(6) Summer and winter winds 
(7) ('yclie winds of Eastern North Ameriea 
(,) Sea 1,reezes and mountain winds. 
For hints on the teaehing of a lesson on Winds, see 
" ,%zgestions ft,r Lessons ", Chapter XV. See also Geo- 
;sraphy l%ader, "5Iansc, an Weather", page 4. 

1. ¢;êneral cause and nature. 
2. Influence of earh's rotation upon their direction. 
3. The great ocean eddies. 
4. They equalize temperature of ocean. 
5. Principal currents---origin, course, influence: 
(1) The C, ulf Strearn 
(2) The ,lapan Current 
(3) The Polar Currents 
(4) Equatoria] Currcnts. 
170 



DETAILS OF COURSE OF STUDY: CLIMATE 171 

('onsult the Text-book, pages 43-5. 
map on page 44. 
TIDES 
1. Phenomena at the ocean side: 
(1) Rise and fall of water 
(:t) Regular time-intervals 
(3) Effects upon shipping. 
2. Explanation of phenomena: 
(1) The theory of attraction. 
magnet and a nail.) 
(2) Attraction of the M.on and 

(3) 

Study The World 

(Illustrato bv a 

Sun. (See dia- 
grain.c, pages 45-6 of Text-book.) 
Spring and neap tide.. (Consult the Text- 
book, pages 45-6, and the Ontario High S«hool 
Physical Geography, pages 23?-3.) 

ECLIPSES OF THE SUN AND 3It)ON 
1. Cause of eclipses. (Illustrate by means of candle and 
shadows.) 
'2.. Eclipse of the moon--total, partial. 
3. Eclipse of the sun--total, partial. 
Consult the Almanac for dates of eclipses. 

CLIMATI'] 
1. Distinction between weather and e]imate. 
2. Factors that influence climate: 
(1) Latitude: 
(a) The effeet of the sun's ravs i.¢ g'reate.t 
where they fall perpendieularly on the 
surface of the earth, and it dimii.he. 
as their ohliquity im.rea.e.<. 



172 GEOGRAPHY 

(b) The surface covered by the oblique rays 
is greater than that covered by the per- 
pendicular rays. {,See diagram page 35, 
Text-book. ) 
(c) Oblique rays pass through a greater 
thickness of air and thus lose more heat 
by absorption. (('onsult O,tario High 
S«hool Phy.,,i«al leoyraphy, diagram 
page 177.) 
(d) The slope of the earth is important; a 
slope fo tbe south is warmer thau one 
fo the north. 
(2) Elevatiou : 
The bigher we ascend the eolder it gets. 
The pupil must understand, in this 
«ounection, that the actual temperature 
of the air depends not so much upon 
the direct rays of the sun as upon the 
radiation from the heated surface of 
tbe earth. 
(3) The nature of the soil: 
(a) A sand or rock desert raises the tempera- 
ture rapidly when heated b" the surfs 
rays. 
(b) A newly-ploughed field both absorbs and 
radiates heat much more rapidly than 
a rass field. I[as the cultivation of the 
prairie tended fo change ifs climate? 
{4) Proximity fo tbe sea: 
(a) Water a poor absorber, and a poor radiator 
of heat 
'b} Effec of great evaporation 
(«) Effect f oceanie currents 
(d) Maritime and contiuental climates. 



DETAILS OF COURSE OF STUDY: LIGHT ZONES 173 

(5) Rainfall : 
(a) Coast countries have more rain than in- 
land countries. 
(b) Mountain regions are wetter than the 
plains. 
(c) The tropics bave more rainfall than othcr 
zoIles. 
Explain and gie illustrations. (Consult 
Rainfall Maps: Text-book, page 4; 
and Onlario Hig] ,¢c]ool P]yxical 
(;eoyrap]!l. paTes 1 {;s-] 1. ) 
(6) Prevailing winds" 
Atmo.pherie eurrenI., exerei.e a greater 
influence up,m elimate than do oeean 
eurrents. 
(7) Local eireum.tanees: 
(al The amount of snowfall. 
(b) Bogs and mar.hes cool he air and generaIe 
fogs. 
(c) f'lav soils retain moi.,ture langer lhan 
lighter soil. and bave the saine effeet 
as marshes. 
(d) The elearing, drainage, and eultivaion of 
land generally bave favourahle effeets 
on elimate. On the «,ther hand, a tr,o 
eomplete removal of f,,ro.fs mav pre- 
vent the deposition «,f nmi.ture to sueh 
an extent as to eau.e dl'oughts or even 
floods. Is this partially true of Old 
Ontario ? 

LIGHT ZONES 
Torrid, North and South Frigid, Xorth and Sout]i 
Temperate Zones; their boundares. 



174 GEOGRAPHY 

:For hints on teaching the Zones of Sunlight, see 
Chapter XV. 
HEAT ZONES 
1. Isotherms. 
2. The ]lot Bclt, Xorth and South Cold Caps, North and 
S,uth Tcmlerate Belts; their limits. 
:. Plant and animal lire: 
(l) Icpcmlelme of plant life upon soil, temperature, 
rainfall 
(2} Vegetation regi«ms located. (See Text-book, page 
4.%) 
(3) Dependence of animal lire upon vegetation 
(4) l;cneral distribution of animals. (,ee Text-book, 
page 55.) 
4. The pcople «,f the world: 
The vari,us faces: their characteristics as in- 
fluenced bv environment; their di.stribution. 
(See Tcxt-book. page (10.) 
F,w hints «, tcaching tlle Zones of Heat, see Chapter 

NORTH AMERICA 

. review «,f the subject-matter outlined for the Junior 
(;rades of Forms III and IV. 

SOUTH AMERICA 
Review the subject-matter outlined for the Junior 
(rade of Form IV. 
genera| study of the continent as a whole: 
S[uil America furnishes opportunity for the 
studv of conditions prevailing n a tropical country. 
Thé wind and eahn bêlts, togêthêr with thê high- 
lands, furnish a kev for thé interprêati¢m of rainfall. 



DETAILS OF COURSE OF STUDY: SOUTH AMERICA 175 

Study carefully, therefore, the prevailing winds and 
the relief of the continent as a whole. Account for 
the heavy rainfall in the equatorial region, in tlw 
Brazilian Highlands, and on the western slopes of the 
Andes in the temperate zone ; also for the light rainfall 
on the western side of the Andes in the torrid zone: 
and for the wet and dr 3 • seasons north and south of 
the Equator. Show how these conditions influence the 
distribution and actiities of man. 
3. The Great Industries of the continent: 
It is best to take the industries of the continent as 
a whole, rather than in connection with the study 
of the individual eonntrv. Since the surface, soil, 
elimate, drainage, occupations, and productions of 
the whole continent have been carefully studied, the 
pupil will know in what division and clinlate-belt 
each country lies, and what, therefore, are the chier 
occupations of the people in each. It aceordingly 
seems unnecessary fo rnake a detailed topical study 
of each country. I,et the study of these countrie-s 
corne incidentally in connection with the study of the 
continent as a whole, and ernphasize in conneetion 
with each country such matters as are espeeially 
associated with it. 
Teach thoroughly those industries and products 
whieh are typical of South Arnerica: coffee, cocoa. 
quinine, diarnonds, nitrates, rubber. Picture, if pos- 
sible, nlettrods employed in production. Dcfine areas. 
('ompare stoek-raising with that industrv as car- 
ried on in Canada. W-hat areas? Whv? Elnphasize 
uses of the productions, their importance in the com- 
mercial world, the countriês to which they are sent, 
thê shipping ports, and routes. 



176 GEOGRAPHY 

In a similar manner study the wheat industry; 
show influence of imported machinery. 
Why does South America senti more of ber pro- 
ducts fo Europe than fo North America? What does 
she senti te, ('anada? What do we send to ber? Why 
are ber ma,ufartures n¢»f more fnlly developed? 
('ompare the forests with those of North America, 
and study their products. 
Study briefly the most important mineral pro- 
ducts. 
Study somewhat carefully the construction and 
probable influence of the Panama ('anal. 

EUROPE 
Review the subject-matter as outlined for the Junior 
Grade of Form IV. (Sce page 158.) 
further study of the continent as a who]e, with special 
reference fo rainfal], vegetation, agriculture and asso- 
ciated industries; mining; manufacturing; transpor- 
tation, seaports; population; governnlent. 

ASIA 

1. Review continent structure, toast-line, and drain- 
age, as outlined for the Junior Grade of Form IV 
(Sec page 159.) 
9. ('omplete the study by uAng outlines simi]ar fo 
those suggeted for North and South America and 
Europe. 
IC 
I. Situation : 
In reard fo henisphere, heat belts, wind belts, other 
continents, oeeans, latitude, longitude. 



DETAILS OF COURSE OF STUDY: AFRICA 177 
2. Size : 
In cornparison with other continents. 
3. Coast-line : 
Extent, regularity, advantages and ,hsadvantages, 
eomparison with other eontinent.. 
4. Surface : 
I|ighlands, lowlands, their distribution, their ehar- 
acteristics, COml)arison with other conti.ent.. 
5. Drainage" 
(1) l'dvers: Nile, Congo, Niger, .qenegal, Zaml.ezi, 
Limpopo, and Orange--their g«.neral direction, 
eharacteristics, value from stand-point of e.,m- 
meree and exploration. 
(2) Lakes: ('had--location and relation fo drainage. 
Lakes of Central Africa--reasons for size, im- 
portance. 
6. Climate : 
(1) Temperature 
(2) Winds : prevailing winds, monsoon 
(3) lainfall : 
General conditions arrived af from a knowle(lge 
of temperature, winds, surface. Specific 
conditions froln study of rainfall map. {.oe 
page 40, Toxt-book.) Regi.ns of extr, mcly 
light and heav rainfall aceounted for. 
(4) Effect of climate upon exploration and develop- 
ment. 
7. Vegetation" 
(1) General distribution a.< dependel,t Ul»Oa tem- 
perature, soil, and rainfalt 
(2) Charaeter. 
8. Animais : 
(1) Distribution as dependent upon vegetation 
(?) Charaeter. 



178 GEOGRAPHY 

9. People : 
(1) Distribution as influeneed by elimate, vegetation, 
etc. 
(?) Raees, ebaracteristies. 

AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 

Treat Australia and New Zealand from a causal 
standl,oint. Fix upon some important problem early 
in the study, such as distribution of population, kinds 
,,f products and tbeir distribution, fo be worked out 
,s tbe study proceeds. Apply the principles outlined 
for the studv of S,mth Ameriea (pages 174-5). 
Suggestive topics : 
l'hy.ical features; wind belts; distribution of 
temperature and rainfall; vegetation zones, popula- 
tion: produets, transportation routes. 
Speeial topies : 
Mining; farming, ranching" exports, govern- 
ment, history, and relation fo the Empire. 

CANADA 
A dêtailed review of tbe Dominion as a whole. 

UNITED STATES 
1. Position and size. 
?. Division of ,qtates into sections. The subject-matter 
of each section fo be treated as outlined in the Text- 
book : 
(1) New England States (6), 
(2) Middle Atlantic States (61, exclusive of Dis- 
trict of Columbia, 
(3) ,qouthern Atlantic States (4), 



DETAILS OF COURSE OF STUDY: BRITISH EMPIRE 179 

(4) Southern States of the Mississippi Basin (7), 
(5) Northern States of thc Mississippi Basin (1), 
(6) Plateau States (8), 
(7) Pacific Coast States (3). 
3. Dependencies of the United States: 
(a) Alaska, 
(b) tIawaii, 
(c) Philippinc Islands, 
(d) Porto Rico. 
There are forty-eight States, New Mexico and Arizona 
I)eing the last fo reach this status. How many " stars" 
are there on the American flag? 

THE BRITISH EMPIRE 

The subject-matter in the Text-book (pages 25o-25,) 
may be ruade the basis of study. Use, if possible, a ma l) 
of the British Empire similar to that on page 251 of the 
Text-book. 
Discuss with the class: 
l. The growth and extent of the Empire, 
2. Its trade and commerce, 
3. Communication within the Empire--trade routes. 
cab]e connections, 
4. Protection of commerce. 

5. Constituent parts: 
(a) in Europe, (b) in Asia. (c) in Africa, 
(d) in America, (e) in Australia and 
the Pacific Ocean. 

For hints on teaching The Evolution of the British 
Empire; see Chapter XV. 



('lï[APTER XV 

FOP, M IX', SENIOR GRADE 

SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS 

WIND. 
THEr, E are great rivers of ater in the ocean called ocean 
currents, su«h as the Equatorial Currcnt, (;u|f Stream, 
aml 3apan (_'urrent, that arc continuously moving in fairly 
dcfinite courses. So, too, in the atmosphere, there are 
great rivers of air called wind currents or winds that also 
more in more or ]css dcfinite courses. 
The air is verv m,stab]e and is therefore easily moved 
hv outside forces. T|,e principal forces that influence ifs 
movements are hcat, moisture, and the rotation of the 
earth. Hcat,as was 1),ilted out in Form II, causes air 
to expand and thus makes if lighter in weizht; nloisture 
al.o makes if ]ighter; the rotation of the earth influences 
ifs direction. 
The lightcr air ri.es as the cooler aml heavier air at 
the sides flows under it and lift. if up. When the air 
becomes ]i.htcr than usual, its pressure is said fo be 
" ]ow". Itence ligh pres._'«re means a beavy atmosphere; 
aml low pres'çre, a light atmosphcre. These conditions 
are indicatcd and mcasured bv the |)arometer. A rail in 
the barometer usually precedes a rainstorm. W-hy? 
Heated regions are always areas ()f l«,w pressure; and cold 
regions, unless counteracting a.gencies are at work, are 
areas ,,f high pressure. Win(]. always blow from areas of 
high pressure to areas of low pressure. 
180 



SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS: WINDS 181 

In areas of low pressure, where warm air is risin 
fo form upper currents, or in areas of high pressure, where 
cool air is falling fo form surface currents, areas of cahns 
are formed. IIcnee, air currents moving along the sur- 
face of the earth pr,duee wind.% while those moving eith«,r 
upward or downward produce ealm.. 
What is the greatest area of low pressure in the worl«l? 
Why is if situated in fixe equatorial reion ? What naine 
is given to if? This Doldrum regi,,u is one of great calms. 
Why? (,qee Text-hook, page 38.) Where does this region 
get its supply of air? It is e-ntinu«.«ly rushin in as 
great surface currents from tbe mrtb ald frm the s-uth. 
What naine is given fo these winds? These trade-u'inds, 
as hey are ea}led, bezin to blcw af. about the 3oth para]lel 
of latitude. In the northern hemisphere thev blow from 
the north-east, and in the southern hendsphere from the 
south-east. Why ? 
The tra¢]e-winds are usually fresh and strong, and 
sailing vessels may go on for days without changing sai|. 
These are the winds that earried Columbus with his three 
small ships aeross the Atlantic {}«'ean on his voyage fo 
Ameriea in 1497. They are flry winds when they begin fo 
blow, but when they reach the doldrum region they are 
almost saturated with moisture. How would you explain 
this? (Sec Text-book, page 37.) .ç. the trade-winds ravel 
owar«] the doldrum., they are gradually beeoming warmer 
and warmer, an«l will therefore ah.orb more and more 
moisture. This rnakes them dr!ring winds. What is the 
effeet of these win«]s upon the lanls over whieh they blov ? 
What causes the Desert «,f ,qahara ? 
Vhaf beeomes of this flow of warm, moisf air when if 
reaehes fhe do]drums? Deseribe the elimate of the dol- 
drums. (See Text-book, page 38.) What beeomes of the 



182 GEOGRAPHY 

air that rises in the doldrums? Have we any evidence 
tiret, after if rises to a great leight, if lluws off toward 
thc poles? From observations marie in the region of the 
West lndies and in the Caribbean ,ea, as well as elsewbere 
wbcre the trade-winds are blowing toward the south-west, 
«»ne may see c]c»uds af a reat altitude being carried in 
the opposite direction. Locate on a globe or map the 
trade-wind reions with the do]drum region ]ying be- 
tveen. (Sec Ontario [lil, ,ç'clool Pl,ical Georaply, 
]»age 201.) 
What becomes of tbe upper air currents that flow 
from the do]drums off toward the poles? A large portion 
falls fo tbe surface at about the 30th parallel of latitude. 
Here we find in bolh the nortbern and southern hemi- 
spheres, a region of calms and light winds. This is the 
area of highest pressure in the world. Wby are ca]ms 
so preva]ent here? Bv wbat naine is this region known? 
What becomes of the air that is fallin in (hese *Horse 
Latitudes? It is the source of supp]y for the trade-wind 
svstems as we]l as for two other great wind systems known 
as the Prerailing ||'esterlies. 
Why are the Prevailing Wester]ies so called? When 
they leave the horse latitudes, they take a long sweep 
toward tbe ea.t-n«rtheast in the northern bemisphere, and 
toward tbe east-southeast in tbe soutbern bemisphere; in 
both cases they final]y reach the polar regions. Why are 
these winds more uniform in tbe southern hemisphere than 
in tbe northern? Explain wby it is easier for ships sailin 
from England to Austra]ia fo go by way of the Cape of 
*It ls sald that the Horse Latitudes were so named be- 
cause salling vessels, carrying horses from New England to 
the West Indies in the early days, v¢ere so delayed by the 
calms that at times the horses had to be thrown overboard 
when the drinking xvater gave out. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR LESSONS: WINDS 183 

Good Hope than by way of Cape Horn. Which is the 
better route for the return voyage ? Why ? 
The prevailing westerlies that blow over Canada and 
the Atlantic 0cean are somewbat variable; tbey b]ow on 
an average about two days out of every tbree throu/hout 
the year. For example, the average rime of a sailing 
voyage from Liverpool fo Nexv York is tbirty-tbree days; 
and from New York to Liverpool, twenty-two days. II,»w 
do tbese prevailing westerly winds great]y afft.vt tbe 
climate of British ('oluml»ia? Of the British Islcs? 
Loeate, ou a globe or a mal» of tbe world, the regions over 
which these winds blow. 
The Monsoon Winds of Southern Asia and the Indian 
Ocean are modified trade-windstrade-winds tbat change 
with tbe season. From ()ctober to ,'I»ril tbey resemble the 
ordinary north-east trades, b]owing from Asia over the 
Indian Ocean. Europcans in ]ndia find these montbs the 
pleasantest and most healtbful part of the vear. From 
April fo October, however, the plateaus of Southern and 
Central Asia become so greatly beated tbat they become 
areas of low pressure--lower prcssure tban that over the 
Indian Ocean. The result is that the winds, instead çf 
blowing from the north-east, turn complctcly around and 
blow strong]y and stcadilv from thc south-west. They 
bring excessive rains, and tbe weather becomes so hot and 
the humidity so great tbat many Europcans in India are 
orced to go to the foot-hills of the Himalayas for comfort 
and health. 
The above is a general description only of the more 
constant winds. Owing, however, fo the instability of tbe 
atmosphere, to frequent changes in heat conditions, as well 
as fo various other causes, there are endless modifications 
in tbe character of winds. Some of the more important 
13 



184 GEOGRAPHY 

of tbe variable winds are the polar winds, land and sea 
breezes, day breezes and night calms, thunder-storms, the 
common cyclonic or cycle storms of the Eastern United 
States and Eastern Canada, and the destructive tornadoes. 
Excellent supplclnentary material may bc found in Chapter 
X[ of lbe Ontario High School Physical Geography. 
Study the diatrrams on page 38 of the Text-book until the 
location aud direction of the priimipal winds are under- 
stood. 
ZONES OF SCNLIGIIT 
What parts of thc carth's surface receive most heat 
from thc sun,9 Th«,.e parts npon wbich the suu's rays rail 
vertically. Where is the location of the farthest north 
point upon which thc su's rays are vertical,9 It is on 
the Trol,ic of Cancer. Wbat is the latitude of tbe Tropic 
of Cancer,9 23½ ° north. Similarly show that the farthest 
soutb point upon which tbe sun's rays are vertical is the 
Tropic of ('apricorn, 23½ ° south. ]Ience, the on]y portion 
of the earth's surface that receivcs thc direct or vertical 
rays of the sun some rime during the year is located 
between the two tropics. This region extends like a belt 
around the earth and is called the Torrid Zone. If 
receives more lizt and heat than any otber region on the 
earth, lIow mauy degrees in width is this zone ? 
]low much of the earth's surface will receive rays of 
sunlight af aly oue n-ment.9 One balf of ifs surface. 
llence, when the sun is shining vertically down upon any 
oe point, how far on all sides of this point will tbe 
earth re«eive rays of sunligbt.9 Ninety degrees. Illustrate 
this by means of a candle and globe. 
Hence, when the sun is shining vertically down upon 
the Tropic of Cancer. note that ifs rays will fall 23½ 
degrees beyond the North Pole, that this determines the 



ZONES OF SUiVLIGHT 

185 

latitude of the Arctic Circle, that the whole region within 
the Arctic Circle is in sun]ight, and that the rays of the 
sun are very slanting since the sun is so near the horizon. 
Note, also, that af the saine rime the rays of the sun 
fall short of the South Pole 23½ degrees, that this deter- 
mines the latitude of the Antarctic Circle and that 
the whole rcgi«n within the Antarctic Circ]e is without 
any sunlight whatever. ,_x mon/hs later these conditions 
are reversed. If is because these polar regions receive se» 
little light and heat frolu the sIanting sun's ray. that they 
are ealled respectively, the Norll Frigid Zone and the 
,'¢outh Frigid Zone. (ee diagrams, page 15, Text-book.) 
Between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Cirele in 
the northern hemisphere, and hetween the Tropic of 
Capricorn and the Antarctie Circle in the southern hemi- 
sphere are regions that are not .o extremely hot as the 
Torrid Zone and not so extrelne]y cold as the Frigid Zones. 
Thev are regions of moderate temperature.¢, and hence 
are known, respectivcly, as the Xorll Temperate Zone 
and the Soutl Temperate Zone. Unlike the Frigid Zones, 
the sun shines upon them every da)- of the year; its rays do 
hot rail so slantingly upon them and hence are warmer. 
Unlike the Torrid Zone, no 'ertical rays of the sun eer 
fall upon them and therefore they are hot so hot. IIow 

wide are the Temperate Zones? 
or 43 degrees wide. 
In which Z»ne is Cgnada? 
in the North Temperate Zone ? 

Each is 90--(23½+23½) 
What other countries are 
What countries are in the 

South Temperate Zone? In the Torrid Zone? Draw a 
circle; indicate the two polar circles and the two tropics; 
write in the names of the rive zones of sunlight. 



186 GEOGRAPHY 

ZONES OF IIEAT 
What instrument is used fo measure the temperature 
of the air? How does the temperature vary during the 
day? If is usuaIIy warmer in the daytime than if is ai 
night. What is the reason of this? By using special 
kinds of thermometers we are able fo learn the highest 
and lowest temperatures for each day. If the highest tem- 
pcraturc recorded on a certain day is 86 degrees and the 
lowest 52 degrees, what was the average temperature for 
that day? If was 69 degrees. IIow is the average yearly 
temperature of any place calculated ? 
What name is given to an imaginary line drawn around 
the earth connecting the places that have the same 
average yearly temperature? It is called an isothermal 
line, or i«otherm. I}o these isotherms form circles around 
the earth like the parallels of latitude? Why not? It is 
because the earth is not evenly heated. 
Which warms faster, the land or the ocean ? Why does 
the ocean hot become as warm as the land under equal heat 
conditions? It is because the ocean has currents fo earry 
the warmer water awav to cooler places. If is because of 
this that the ocean has a more equable climate than the 
land. Why does an isotherm reach a higher latitude when 
it is crossing a continent than when itis crossing an ocean ? 
(See Ontario High Sclool Plgsical Geograply, pages 184- 
87.) 
What naine is given fo the isotherm passing through 
those places that bave the greatest average temperature in 
the world? It is called the tteat çquator. Why is this 
heat equator not a circle like the geographieal equator? 
Why does the heat equator change ifs position during the . 
year? Why is its average position during the year alwavs 
north of the geogr.aphical equator? It is because the 



ZONES OF HEAT 

187 

northern hemisphere has more land than the southern 
hemisphere that if is warmer than the latter. 
Extending ar«und the earth on both sides of the heat 
equator is a l»roa,l reion known as the Ilot Belt. Ifs 
northerl boundary is the northern isotherm that ha. an 
average .vearly temperature of 68 degree.. II. southern 
boundary is the southern isotherm of 68 degrees. 
Around the north pole is an extremely eold area ealled 
the A'orth Cold Cap in which the average temperature is 
never above 50 degrees. If takes af least 50 ,legrees fo 
ripen the hardie.t grain.. What isotherm will theref,,re 
f,,rm the southern b«,undary of the north eold cap? Deal 
similarly with the South ('old Cp. 
:Between the hot belt ou the south and the north eohl 
cap is a regi«m known a. the .Yorth Temperate P, elt. What 
is ris northern boundary? Its soutl,ern boundarv? What 
range of temperature has this belt? Its average tempera- 
tures range between 5 de,.-rees and 68 degrees. Deal 
similarly with the ,','outh Temperate Belt. Why is the 
north temperate helt mueh wider than the south tem- 
perate belt? ]t is because the f,»rmer has a o'reater land 
area than the latter. Explain. 
Consult the map and note that the north temperate belt 
embraces the most progressive countries in the world, in- 
cluding Canada, the United States, all the countries of 
Europe, and China and Japan. 
Draw a map of the world on Mercator's projection and 
show the general location of these heat belts, disti,guish- 
i them by different colour shadings. 



188 GEOGRAPHY 

SUGGESTIONS FOR A SERIES OF " TALKS " ON 
THE EVOLUTION OF TilE BRITISH EMPIRE 

T,» «»Main a pr«Ter perspective ,f the British Empire 
as «t preselt consituted, some of the geographical and 
historit.al fa(.t»r. that have been co-operating in its 
development should be considered. 
1. In ail ages and anmng all changes of inhabitants the 
insular character of Britain bas been one of the ruling 
fat.tors of ifs history. Its pcople, of whatever race or 
sI»cech, whatever their political condition af home or their 
l«»]iti«al relati» to othêr countrics, bave been ahove ail 
hings pre-cminently islamlcrscut off in many wa)'s from 
the test «»f the w¢»rhl, re.ring in many things as a separate 
wor]d. 
2. There settled early in England roving, adventurous, 
]iberty-lov[ng Aglo-Saxons, and their ro'ing, adventurous 
spirit has been tran.-:mitted to the succeeding generations of 
the British people. These were not content fo stay within 
the limits of tiroir little home islands, and many went forth, 
e.¢pecially during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth 
centuries, as sailors, explorers, and colonizers. As they 
discovered new reg[ons, they took formal possession of 
them in the naine of the[r Mother-country. In this way, 
.'md hv war, Britain came into possession of Canada, 
India, Austra]ia, New Zea]and, and South Africa, as well 
as lhe .nml]er colonies scattered over the world. 
2. Thus. from sma]l beginnings the British Empire 
lins grown unti] to-day if stands first among the nations 
i wcalth, p«»wer, area, and population. If oceTies over 
om tïfth of the land surface and im.ludes more than a 
quarter of the total population of the world. In this popu- 
lation are represented practical]y ail the races and grada- 
tions of human societv corre]ated within the jurisdietion 



THE EVOLUTION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE 159 

of one paramount state. The position of the British 
lslands at the centre of the land hemisphere helps greatly 
fo explain the ell«»l'nlous extent of Britisll commerce. 
4. Tl,e Saxon I,rouht with him to Britain the denlo- 
cratic Sl-,irit iii governnlent and denmcratic f-rll 
ernment--p,q»ular representation of the governed. 
germ of political and social life was brought into Britain 
which, ehanging fr«»m generation to generation but never 
itseIf exehanged for ans" other s.vsten, borrowing from 
foreign s-urees but a.similating what it borrowed with its 
own essence, ehanging its outward shape but abi,linff un- 
louehed in its truc sub.tanee, ha. live,l and .rown 
through f, urteen huudred years into the law. the con.ti- 
turion, the social being of England."--FrEE3t',y. Since 
the war of American Independence, f;reat Britain ha. 
¢overned ber colonies in sueh a wav as to advanee thei'r 
interêsts, and not merelv for her own advantage. 
Autonomv has been granted as soon a» thev have been 
able te, a.*sume re.ponsibility. A .pirit of t,,leration for 
language anti religion, a belief in the supremacy of law 
and in personal and political freedom, a recognition of 
mutual rights and privileges have marked the administra- 
tiou of Great Britain in every quarter of the lobe. 
The sea whieh sheltered England from the armies 
which devastated mueh of Europe had aeeu.tomed the 
P, ritons to the handlin,, of ship.. Henry VIII ereated 
the Eng|ish narv and improved it vear by year. Elizabeth 
elaimed the freedom of the seas iu 158c- and in 1588, by 
the destruction «»f the Armada she broke the nmnop,91y 
of the seas then claimed by Spain. The stru,dIe latt.r for 
the empire of the sea lay between France and Enffland 
and ended at Trafalgar. Since then Britain has main- 
tained that supremacy af sea which is the condition of her 
existence. 



190 GEOGRAPHY 

The unity of the Empire depends for its strength upon 
a conmmn aneestry, common ideals, a community of in- 
terests, and a h,yalty bred from the traditions and history 
of a ghJrioos past. Tl,e supremacy of the Empire is a 
zuarantee of pca,.e and justice thr, mghout the world. Our 
task and aire shouhl be fo fit ourselves, bv closer union, fo 
maintain its limits and extcnd its influence. 

CANADA'S RELATIONSHIP TO THE EMPIRE 
In cnnsidering Canada's relation fo Britain and tbe 
rest «,f the Empire, the following points, among others, 
shoul,1 re.eive attenti,m : 
1. ll,,w Canada hecame a part of the British Empire. 
2. llow the favmrahle terres granted fo the Freneh- 
('anadians by the Treaty of Paris (1763), and their con- 
tentment under British rule, bave lnade them loyal to 
];ritain and fo British institutions. 
3. IIow a strong stimulus was given fo loyalty to 
British connection by the settlement in Canada of thou- 
sands of United Empire Loyalists at the close of the 
American War of In,lependence. 
4. Ih,w this loyalty was greatly intensified by the War 
of 1,q12-15. 
5. How the principle of self-govermnent, gradually 
«once,led by {;reaç Britain, tended fo make Canadians 
contented with British eonnection. 
6. llow the Boer and the German Wars tended fo 
strenthen hnperial patriotism and Canadian national 
self-respect. 
7. Canada's present status may be sumraed np as 
follows : 



CANADA'S RELATION TO THE EMPIRE 191 

(1) The British Government appoints the Gov- 
ernor-general; and may xeto, within two 
3ears after passing, any A«'t «,f the 'ana- 
dian l»arlianlelt which if may regard as 
detrimental fo the interests f thc Empire. 
It wouhl be only under the mo.t grave 
eircumstatices tha wc ean eonceive of this 
power being exereised. 
(2) Canada has fiscal independence, but gives a 
" preferential tariff" fo the Mother-country 
and t most of the other parts of tho 
Empire, except Aus{ra|ia. 
(3) Canada bas as.umed, with the concurrence of 
the British (ovcrnmcnt, the full re.pon- 
sibility of maintaining a permaleat military 
f-ree, militia, and navy for h«,r own defen«'e, 
and in so doing is relievin the M«»ther- 
country of a part of ber heavy lmperia] 
responsibilities. 
(4} Canada has not yet any voiee in the declaration 
of war or peace; the Imperial Government 
alone has this pover. 
(5) The ]lighest court of appeal is the Judicial 
('ommitfee of fle Imperial Privy ('ouncil. 
(6) The strongest fie binding Canada fo the rest 
of file Empire fs file one of sentiment, 
based ehiefly upon communify of interest 
and of blood relation.hip. 
(7) In o/ber respects Canada fs virtua|]y an 
independcnt country with full control of lier 
affairs. 

Daughter am I in my mother's house, 
But mistress In my own.--KIPLIN(} 



BOOKS OF REFERENCE 

IIETHODS OF TEACHING 

The Teaching of Geography in Elementary Schools. Dodge & 
Kirchwey. Rand, McNally & Co., Chicago. 
The Teaching of Geography. Geikie. Macmillan, Toronto. 
Special Method in Geography. McMurry. Macmillan, Toronto. 
The New Basis of Geography. Redway. Macmillan, Toronto. 
The Teaching of Geography. Sutherland. Scott, Foresman & 
Co., Chicago. 
A Rational Oeography, Pts. I, II, III. Young. George Philip & 
Son, London, Eng. 

SUPPLEMENTARY BOOKS FOR TEACHERS 

Commercial and Industrial Geography. Keller and Bishop. 
Ginn & Co., Boston. 
Influence of Geograt)hy Upon Environment. Semple. Henry 
Holt & Co., New York. 
Home Geography for Primary Grades. Fairbanks. Educa- 
tional Publishing Co., New York. 
Commercial Raw Products. Toothaker. Ginn & Co., Boston. 
How the World is Fed. Carpenter. American Book Co., New 
York. 
How the World is Housed. Carpenter. American Book Co., 
New York. 
How We Are Sheltered. Chamberlain. Macmillan, Toronto. 
How We Are Clothed. Chamberlain. lIacmillan, Toronto 
How We Are Fed. Chamberlain. Macmillan, Toronto. 
How We Travel. Chamberlain. Macmillan, Toronto. 
Stories of Industry. Vols. I, II. Educational Publishing Co., 
New York. 
Man and His Markets. Lyde. Macmillan, Toronto. 
193 



194 GEOGRAPHY 

Great American Industries. Ed. Rocheleau. McClelland, 
Goodchild & Stewart, Toronto. 
3,Iinerals; Manufactures; Products of the Soil; Trans- 
portation. 
Historical and Economic Geographies. Vols. I-VI. Dent, 
Toron to. 
I. World Studies; Il. Europe; III. Asia; IV. The Americas; 
V. Africa and Australia; VI. The British Isles and the 
British Empire. 
Man and His Conquest of Nature. Newbegin. A. & C, Black, 
London, Eng. 
Regional Geography--The World. Reynolds. A. & C. Black, 
London, Eng. 

GEOGRAPHY READERS 

(Consult C««tologe of Books recommended for Public and 
Separate School Libraries, page 96.) 

A Geography Reader--Asia. ttuntington. Rand, McNally & 
Co., Chicago. 
Africa as Seen by its Explorers. E.J. Webb. Edward Arnold, 
London, Eng. 
Highroads of Geography. Vols. l-V. T. Nelson & Bons, 
Toronto. 
New Century Geography Readers. Vols. I-VII. Blackie & Bon, 
London, Eng. 
Carpenter's Geographical Readers. Vols. I-V. American Book 
Co., New York. 
The Youth's Companlon Series. Ginn & Co., Boston. 
The Wlde World; Under Sunny Skies; Toward the Rlsing 
Sun; Industries of To-day. 
The World and Its People. T. Nelson & Bons, Toronto. 
Europe; Asia; Africa; America; Australasia. 
The Continents and Tbeir People. Chamberlain. Macmillan, 
Toronto. 
North America; South America; Asia; Europe; Africa. 
Industrial Studies--Europe. Allen. Ginn & Co., Boston. 
Home Lire in All Lands. Morris. Lippincott & Son, Phila- 
delphia. 
I4ow the World Llves; Manners and Customs of Un- 
civilized Peoples. 



BOOKS OF REFERENCE 

195 

GENERAL READING FOR LIBRARY 

Earth and Sky Every Child Should Know. Rogers. Mc- 
Clelland, Goodchild, & Stewart. 
Water Wonders Every Child Should Know. Thompson. 
Doubleday, Page & Co. 
Peeps at Many Lands and Cities. Macmillan (Black), Toronto. 
France; Holland; Egypt; etc. 
Peeps at Great Industries. Macmillan (Black), Toronto. 
Rubber; Tea; Sugar; and others. 
Little Folks of Many Lands. Chance. Ginn & Co., Boston. 
Lucita--A Child's Story of Old Mexico. Gaines. Rand, Mc- 
Nally & Co., Chicago. 
The Little Cousin Series. 30 vols. The Page Co., Boston. 
Library of Travel Series. McClelland, Goodchild & Stewart, 
Toronto. 
Llttle Journeys fo China and Japan; Llttle Journeys fo 
llexico and Central America: Little J)urneys to Russia and 
Austria; Little Journeys fo IIolland, Belgium, and Denmark; 
Littlœe Journeys fo Cuba and Porto l:tico. 
Little People Everywhere Series. 20 vols. Little, Brown & 
Co., Boston. 
Big People and Litt]e Peop]e of Other Lands. Shaw. 
Amerlcan Book Co., New York. 
Travels in the Far East. Peck. Crowell & Co., New York. 
The New North. Cameron. Appleton & Co., New York. 
Pathfinders of the West. Laut. Macmillan, Toronto. 
Esklmo Stories. Smlth. Rand, McNally & Co., Toronto. 
Twentieth Century G.eography Readers. Vols. I-VII. Cham- 
bers, W. & R., Edinburgh. 
Geographical Readers of the Continents. Vols. I-IV. Cham- 
bers, W. & R., Edlnburgh. 
Europe; Asia; Africa; America.